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Bhagavad Gita

Bhagavad Gita- Chap 18(Part-3) Moksha Sannyaasa Yogah- Yoga Of Liberation By Renunciation
By T.N.Sethumadhavan, July 2011 [tnsethu@rediffmail.com]

Chapter :

The  teachings of the Gita are concluded here.
  HOW TO FOLLOW THE DOCTRINE?

idam te naatapaskaaya naabhaktaaya kadaachana
    na chaashushrooshave vaachyam na cha maam  yo'bhyasooyati // 18.67 //

This  is never to be spoken by you to one who is devoid of austerities or devotion,  nor to one who does not render service, or who does not desire to listen, nor  to one who talks ill of Me.

Having  elaborated the entire doctrine of Gita and re-stated its philosophy, Sri  Krishna prescribes the rule that should be followed for imparting this  knowledge to others. The Lord enumerates the necessary qualifications which are  in the nature of adjustments in the inner personality that are necessary for a  sincere student of the Gita.

In  other words the following types of people cannot be benefited by the study of  Gita. 
•Those who do not live an austere life i.e. those who do not have control over their body and mind. 
•Those who do not have any devotion i.e. those who do not have any capacity to identify themselves with the ideal that they want to reach. 
•Those who do not render service, i.e. those who are not able to serve others and who are selfish having no sympathy for others and 
•Those who criticize The Lord i.e. those who do not have any respect or desire even to listen the philosophy of Gita.

Only  those who are disciplined, loving and have a desire to serve are capable of  understanding the message; others may listen to it and abuse it.

ya imam paramam guhyam madbhakteshwabhidhaasyati
    bhaktim mayi paraam kritwaa  maamevaishyatyasamshayah // 18.68 //

He  who with the highest devotion to Me will teach this supreme secret to My  devotees, shall doubtless come to Me.

na cha tasmaanmanushyeshu kashchinme priyakrittamah
    bhavitaa na cha me tasmaadanyah priyataro bhuvi // 18.69  //

There  is none among men who does dearer service to Me than he; nor shall there be  another on earth dearer to Me.

It  is an Upanishadic commandment that not only one should study the scripture  himself but must pass on the benefit of such knowledge to others in the society  according to the best of his ability. If the knowledge is not so conveyed to  others there cannot be any mobility of intelligence or fluidity of inspiration  in him.

Sri  Krishna promises the highest reward of reaching Him to the one who is capable  of conveying the truths of Gita to others. The Lord also suggests that such a  teacher who spreads the knowledge of Gita is dearest to His heart as there is  none equal to him in the world either at present or in times to come. Sri  Krishna says that there can be none else more dearly to Him than such a  preacher for he is doing the greatest service to Him by earnestly and devotedly  trying to spread the immortal principles expounded in the Gita.

It  is not necessary that one should become first a master of the entire Gita.  Whatever one has understood one must immediately learn to give it out to those  ignorant of even that much.

The  great ones who have crossed the ocean   of Samsara and help  others to cross are the dearest to The Lord. More important than this is that  one must honestly try to live the eternal principles of the Gita in one's own  life so that he becomes eligible to be the dearest to The Lord.

adhyeshyate cha ya imam dharmyam samvaadamaavayoh
    jnaanayajnena tenaaham ishtah syaamiti me matih // 18.70  //

And  he who studies this sacred dialogue of ours, by him I would be worshipped  through the Yajna of Knowledge; such is My conviction.

After  glorifying the teachers who spread the wisdom of Gita, even those who study  this sacred text are applauded. The philosophy of life as given out in  Gita in the form of a dialogue between Sri  Krishna, the Infinite and Arjuna, the Finite Man, will attract a student to its  profundity and transform him to the highest through what The Lord calls as Gyan  Yagna.

Just  like the Fire God is invoked in a sacrifice and then oblations are offered into  it, the study of Gita and regular contemplation on its significance ignites the  Fire of knowledge in the student into which he offers his own false values and  negative tendencies as oblations. This is what is implied in the phrase Gyan  Yagna. Sri Krishna says that such students are the greatest devotees of the Infinite.

shraddhaavaan anasooyashcha shrinuyaadapi yo narah
    so'pi muktah shubhaamllokaan praapnuyaat  punyakarmanaam // 18.71 //

Even  the man who listens to it with faith and without malice, he too, being  liberated, shall attain to the happy worlds of the righteous.

The  Lord suggests that even listening to the Gita discourses is immensely useful.  Sri Krishna indicates two conditions by fulfilling which alone one can gain the  maximum joy and perfection out of the discourses on Gita viz. 
•Full Faith: One should have the capacity to discover, understand and live up to the ideals contained in the subtle meanings of the spiritual declarations and 
•Free from Malice: One should not have any prejudice against the very philosophy of Gita; otherwise its teachings will never appeal to the listener.

To  the extent we learn and live the principles of right living as propounded in  the Gita, to that extent we can live a life of achievement.

kacchidetacchrutam paartha twayaikaagrena chetasaa
    kacchid ajnaanasammohah pranashtaste dhananjaya // 18.72  //

Has  this been heard by you, O Partha, with an attentive mind? Has the delusion  caused by your ignorance been dispelled, O Dhananjaya?

Sri  Krishna enquires Arjuna whether he has understood what has been expounded by  Him all along and whether his distraction of thought, caused by false values  and judgment of affairs, has been dispelled.    The implication is to hear from Arjuna to what extent these discourses  benefited him.

CONCLUSION

arjuna uvaacha
    nashto mohah smritirlabdhaa twatprasaadaanmayaachyuta
    sthito'smi gata sandehah karishye vachanam tava // 18.73  //

Arjuna  said
    Destroyed  is my delusion, as I have gained my memory (knowledge) through your grace, O  Achyuta. I stand firm with my doubts dispelled. I shall act according to your  word.

Arjuna  confesses that his confusions have ended as if he were woken up from a state of  unconsciousness. This statement of Arjuna is not a mere meek acceptance of the  arguments of Sri Krishna.

It  is an affirmation of re-gaining and re-cognizing his own real nature on account  of the awakening of the hero in him as well as his confirmation that the  neurosis which conquered his mental make up temporarily has vanished. The  awakening of wisdom is the end of ignorance. In this state all vacillations of  the mind, doubts and despairs, dejections and hesitations, fears and weaknesses  disappear.

With  such a rejuvenated mind Arjuna declares that he will do according to the word  of The Lord who is nothing but Pure Existence. This is the surrendering of oneself  to one's own inner personality. To surrender oneself and declare that he would  do The Lord's bidding is the beginning and the end of all spiritual life. There  is no more sense of separate existence for the declarer apart from the Godhead.  This evolution means shedding of all pretences and evasions.

“Arjuna  turns to his appointed action, not with an egoistic mind but with  Self-Knowledge. His illusions are destroyed, his doubts are dispelled. The  chosen instrument of God takes up the duty set before it by The Lord of the  world. He will now do God's bidding. He realizes that He made us for His ends,  not our own. Arjuna had the onset of temptation and won his way to a liberating  victory. He now feels that he will fulfill the command of The Lord. It is our duty  to live in the spirit of this verse and remember that we seek not our own will  but the will of Him who sent us. To will what God wills is the secret of Divine  Life”. Dr.S.Radhakrishnan.

When  Arjuna uttered the words “karishye  vachanam tava” (“thy will be done” as a Westerner would say) he gave up his  separate existence and identified himself with the work of the Lord. This  evolution means a great shedding of all pretences, assumptions and evasions. It  is a kind of vastrapaharana, a  stripping-off of the mind and intellect.

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