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Jain Tradition

Jain Philosophy Simplified
By Shri Narottamdas Kapasi, July 2002

Anukant Vad     

190.  A baby is born. Mother loves her creation. The father starts thinking about his responsibilities to the baby.  The brother is happy, imagining pleasant company.  The sister is so fond of the baby that she forgets herself.
191. A relative finds the baby a fine one.  Another finds the baby a happy one.  The fourth finds it sober.
192. The viewpoint of the above persons is correct according to each one of them.
193. Numerous people in the world have their own views.  They even change their views from time to time.
194. A broad mind does not take cudgels with the views of others. Every view may be correct up to a point.

But it is not permissible to harbor inconsistent viewpoints.

Violence is violence.  A killer cannot be regarded as a non-violent person.

A person speaking truth and a person speaking lies cannot be placed on the same footing.
A culture-admonishing killing of people and a culture admonishing serving of people cannot be placed on the same footing.

A culture luring people to convert themselves, with material benefits, cannot be placed on the same footing as a culture permitting conversion for spiritual benefit only. Nectar and poison cannot be equalled.

195. With innumerable people in the world, views are innumerable.  Jainism classified them into seven classes of ‘Naya’ A viewpoint is called a Naya.
196. One looks for the literal truth.  Another looks to the practical truth.  The third looks to the ideal truth.  Fourth looks to the present. The fifth looks to the ultimate. The sixth looks to general truth of statement. The seventh differentiates between words and words.

For instance, one views a king, as wherever he is. Another says that he is a king only when he adorns his royal seat but not when he is at his home.

197. One requests for a cup of water. Another requests for a cup of metal, with water in it. 
198. One states that his friend has left the country for another, even though the friend has only started leaving and has not crossed the border of the country. Another says that the friend has not left the country till he crosses over the border of the country.
199. One need not quarrel with such differences in view points. In such cases reconciliation may be advisable.  A viewpoint may be right, if looked at from one angle. A person with one point of view has no right to proclaim another viewpoint as wrong. Every viewpoint may be correct in its own way.
200. A point of view can refer only to a partial truth. Complete truth is the real and final truth. All views of points pleased together, give a complete picture of truth.  It is an up hill task.
201. Reconciliation of two conflicting views is advisable. It will give a correct picture or a better picture of the truth.  Warring viewpoints lead nowhere.
The names of the seven Nayas;
1. Naigama  2. Sangraha  3.  Vyavahar
4.   Ruju Sutra  5.  Shabda  6.  Sama-bhirudha
                  7.   Evam Bhota

First three kinds of Nayas relate to Vyavahar Naya. The latter four nayas relates to ‘Nishchaya’ Naya. Some times Nayas are classified into two; 1. Vyavahar Naya. 2. Nischaya Naya.


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