III -VIBHUTI PADA
The sutras of the third chapter focus on the achieved union and its result. The term 'vibhuti' denotes manifestation or residue and this Pada delineates all the accomplishments or Siddhis or powers which come as the result of regular yoga practices dealt with above.
The practices, which have been stressed in the Vibhuti Pada are the final three limbs of Ashtanga Yoga: dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi (contemplation), the amalgamated practice of which is known as samyama and this samyama should always be on one and the same object.
This chapter deals with the techniques of practising samyama. The various kinds of knowledge or siddhis or occult powers such as thought reading, powers to become atom-like or huge in size, walking on water, disappearance from sight, understanding the language of animals and birds etc. that might be obtained by practicing this yogic technique have been described.
Patanjali however clearly cautions that such powers should not be sought as they are likely to be misused and can turn the seeker away from the real goal of practising Yoga. It is stressed that knowledge is power and the techniques of utilizing such potency should always be for the best possible universal welfare and the good of the mankind.
IV - KAIVALYA PADA
Kaivalya, which is the ultimate goal of yoga, means solitariness or detachment. The sutras of the fourth and the last chapter deal with impressions left by our endless cycles of birth and the rationale behind the necessity of erasing such impressions. It portrays the yogi, who has attained kaivalya, as an entity who has gained independence from all bondages and achieved the absolute true consciousness. When all the vrittis or modifications of the mind are controlled the true nature of the Purusha or the Self is revealed.
The Yogadarshana is not only ancient but practical. It is appreciated by philosophers and scientists alike. Modern psychologists are also finding its utility in curing stress related mental problems. Methods and techniques detailed in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali contribute largely to the holistic well-being of an individual and the welfare of the society as a whole. This is the reason for the world-wide popularity and acceptance of the Yoga system. It may be noted that next to Bhagavad Gita, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras are the most widely translated Sanskrit scripture in the world.