Bh Gita- Chapter 18(Pt-1) Moksha Sannyaasa Yogah- Yoga of Liberation by Renunciation


dhrityaa yayaa dhaarayate manah praanendriyakriyaah
    yogenaavyaabhichaarinyaa dhritih saa paartha  saatwikee // 18.33 //

The  unwavering fortitude by which, through Yoga, the functions of the mind, the  life-force and the senses are restrained - that fortitude O Partha, is Sattvic.

yayaa tu dharmakaamaarthaan dhrityaa dhaarayate'rjuna
    prasangena phalaakaangkshee dhritih saa paartha  raajasee // 18.34 //

But  the fortitude, O Partha, by which, one holds fast to duty, pleasure and wealth,  and craves for the fruits of action from attachment, that fortitude is Rajasic.
    yayaa swapnam bhayam shokam vishaadam madameva cha
    na vimunchati durmedhaa dhritih saa paartha  taamasee // 18.35 //

That  by which a stupid man does not give up sleep, fear, grief, despair and also  arrogance - that fortitude , O Parthia, is Tamasic.
  The  three kinds of Fortitude (Dhriti) is  explained. Fortitude is consistency of purpose and self-application with which  every individual pursues his field of endeavor chosen for him by his Buddhi to  achieve a set goal without allowing himself to be distracted by the obstacles  on the way. Its power is proportional to the detachment from regrets over the  past and anxieties for the future.

Sattvic: The fortitude by which one controls the activities of  the mind, organs of perception and organs of action is the Sattvic Dhriti. The consistency with which one steadily controls  one's mind and sense organs and their activities through single-pointed  concentration upon a given goal is of the Sattvic type.

Rajasic: The consistency with which one firmly holds on to  duty, pleasure and wealth, ever desirous of enjoying the fruits of his action  is of Rajasic Dhriti. He follows  Dharma-duty- only to gain the heavens, pursues wealth to gain power in life and  works for pleasure to achieve sensual satisfaction.

Tamasic: The steadiness of purpose with which one does not  abandon one's dreams and imaginations, fear and agitation, grief and sorrow,  depression and arrogance is of Tamasic  Dhriti and such a person is called Durmedha,  a fool.


sukham twidaaneem trividham shrinu me bharatarshabha
    abhyaasaadramate yatra duhkhaantam cha nigacchati  // 18.36 //

And  now hear from Me, O Best among the Bharatas, of the threefold pleasure in which  one rejoices by practice and by which one comes to the end of sorrow.

yattadagre vishamiva parinaame'mritopamam
    tatsukham saatwikam proktam aatmabuddhi prasaadajam  // 18.37 //

That  which is like poison at first but in the end like nectar - that pleasure is  declared to be Sattvic, springing from a clear understanding of the Self.

vishayendriya samyogaad yattadagre'mritopamam
    parinaame vishamiva tatsukham raajasam smritam // 18.38  //

That  pleasure which arises from the contact of the sense-organs with the objects,  which is at first like nectar and in the end like poison is declared to be  Rajasic.

yadagre chaanubandhe cha sukham mohanamaatmanah
    nidraalasyapramaadottham tattaamasamudaahritam // 18.39  //

That  pleasure which at the beginning and at the end deludes the Self, which arises  from sleep, indolence and heedlessness is declared to be Tamasic.

Happiness  is the universal aim of life. Only it is of different kinds according to the  Gunas which dominate our nature. If Tamas predominates in us, we are satisfied  with violence and inertia, blindness and error. If Rajas prevails, wealth and  power, pride and glory give us happiness. True happiness of human beings lies  not in the possession of outward things but in the fulfillment of the higher  mind and spirit, in the development of what is most inward in us. It may mean  pain and restraint but it will lead us to joy and freedom. We can pass from the  happiness of knowledge and virtue to the eternal calm and joy, Ananda of the Spirit, when we become one  with the Highest Self and one with all beings.

Sattvic: The joy arising out of the inner self-control and  consequent self-perfection which looks though painful and arduous in the  beginning, is enduring in the long run, in contrast with the fleeting joys of  sensual satisfaction. It is the result of inner discipline and contemplation.  This brings about tranquility in the intellect and from this tranquility of the  intellect emerges Sattvic happiness. This happiness that arises from consistent  effort lasts long and yields greater sense of fulfillment which is the result  of an individual's balanced and self-disciplined life of high ideals and divine  values of life.

Rajasic: This pleasure arises only when the sense-organs are  directly in contact with the sense-objects. In the beginning it is alluring but  it creates a sense of exhaustion and dissipation in the enjoyer in the long  run. It is also vitiated by the anxiety about its diminution and ultimate loss.  Therefore the temporary happiness provided by the sense-objects is termed  Rajasic.

Tamasic: This type of happiness arises from 1. sleep - not the  physiological every day sleep but the non-apprehension of Reality and the  incapacity to perceive the goal of life- 2.indolence - the incapacity of the  intellect to think correctly about the problems that it faces to arrive at a  correct judgment - and 3. Heedlessness - ignoring the values of higher ideals.

These  topics are concluded.

Next time we will proceed from the Verse 18.40


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