Bhagavad Gita- Chapter 2 (Part-5) Saankhya Yogah- Yoga Of Knowledge


yatato  hyapi kaunteya purushasya vipashchitah
    indriyaani  pramaatheeni haranti prasabham manah // 2.60 //

The  turbulent senses, O son of Kunti, do violently carry away the mind even of a  wise man though he may be striving to control them.

Sri  Krishna has so far emphasized that a perfect master is the one who has a complete  control over his sense-cravings. Sense cravings are like turbulent horses. If  these horses are kept under control destination can be reached with safety;  otherwise the rider gets thrown out.

Even  a man of discrimination falls prey to the temptations of the world. Therefore,  the aspirant must not relax his effort for self-control. He should bring all  the senses under his control; otherwise his mind will be dragged into the field  of sense objects leading to a sorrowful experience. This is more likely to happen  even to a highly evolved seeker whereby he will not be able to reach his  spiritual destination of final liberation.   This is an advice of caution to the seeker.


taani  sarvaani samyamya yukta aaseeta matparah
    vashe  hi yasyendriyaani tasya prajnaa pratishthitaa // 2.61 //

Having  restrained all the senses he should sit steadfast, intent on Me; his wisdom is  steady whose senses are under control.

Sri  Krishna warns Arjuna here that as a seeker of Self-perfection he should control  his mind by withdrawing all his sense organs from their wanderings and should  concentrate his entire attention on `me' i.e. The Lord, The Supreme. The idea  is that the mind should be made completely calm to meditate on Him, the Supreme  Lord.

Such  a Yogi, having brought under control all his senses, is called a person of  steady wisdom and established in the Self. Self-discipline is not a matter of  intelligence. It is a matter of will of the mind and vision of the Highest. This  is a technique of Self-Development.


dhyaayato  vishayaan pumsah sangas teshoopajaayate
    sangaat  sanjaayate kaamah kaamaat krodho'bhijaayate// 2.62 //

When  a man thinks of objects, attachment for them arises; from attachment desire is born;  from desire arises anger.

krodhaad  bhavati sammohah sammohaat smriti vibhramah
    smritibhramshaad  buddhinaasho buddhinaashaat pranashyati // 2.63 //

From  anger comes delusion, from delusion the loss of memory, from the loss of memory  the destruction of intelligence; from the destruction of intelligence he  perishes.

From  here onwards Sri Krishna explains the theory of fall of man from God-hood to  sense-entanglements. The source of all evils is wrong thinking and false perceptions.  When a man constantly thinks upon the alluring features of the sense objects  the consistency of such thought creates an attachment in him for the objects of  his thought. When similar thoughts come to play on his mind continuously they  become strong desire for possessing and enjoying the objects of attachment.

He tries  his level best to obtain them. When this motive energy encounters with forces  creating obstacles in the way of fulfillment of his desires it is called anger.  He starts hating the people who come in the way of satisfying his wants, fights  with them and develops hostility towards them. When a person is afflicted with  anger, his mind gets confused casting a shadow on the lessons of wisdom learnt  by him through past experience.  Thus  deprived of the moral strength, he loses his power of discrimination between  right and wrong which is called destruction of intelligence.

Failing  in discrimination, he acts irrationally on the impulse of passions and emotions  and thereby he is unable to attain the spiritual goal paving the way for self-destruction.  Here Krishna traces moral degradation to those first breaths of thought that  come softly and almost unconsciously to the mind.

Desires  may prove to be as rebellious and challenging as the most powerful external forces.  They may lift us into glory or hurl us into disgrace.  Kalidasa in Kumarasambhavam  says that they are really brave whose minds are not disturbed when the sources  of disturbance are face to face with them

What  is called for is not a forced isolation from the world or destruction of sense  life but an inward withdrawal. To hate the senses is as wrong as to love them.  The horses of the senses are not to be unyoked from the chariot but controlled  by the reins of the mind.
  The  movement from desire to destruction can be illustrated as under:
  Brooding  on the objects of senses ►attachment ►desire ►anger ►delusion ►loss of memory ►loss  of reason ►utter ruin.


raagadwesha  viyuktaistu vishayaanindriyaishcharan
    aatmavashyair  vidheyaatmaa prasaadamadhigacchati // 2.64 //

But   the self-controlled man, moving among objects with  his senses   under  restraint  and free  from  both   attraction   and repulsion, attains peace.

The  mind and the senses are endowed with the two natural currents of attraction and  repulsion - liking some objects and disliking certain others. But a man with  mental discipline approaches these sense objects with a mind free from  attraction or repulsion thereby attaining the peace of the Eternal. The senses  and the mind are his servants but not the masters; he is the Master of wisdom.  Running away from the sense objects cannot ensure mental tranquility because  mind’s agitations for getting the desired objects or to get rid of the  undesired ones will continue.

When  the  mind is trained in these two aspects  viz., (a) to  live in  self-control  and (b) to move among the   sense  objects  with neither attachment nor hatred towards  them, its agitations caused by  the  charm of such objects are  brought  under  control.  This condition of the mind, which has  the least sense disturbances because of the ineffectiveness of the sense  objects upon it, is called tranquility or peace or `Prasada'.

This  verse answers Arjuna's question as to how does the man of steady wisdom move about?

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