Jain philosophy simplified

  • By Shri Narottamdas Kapasi
  • July 2002

Path to Salvation       

144. A person seeking the path leading to salvation gets it.
145. The scriptures lay down that right faith, right knowledge and right conduct, combined together, construct the Right path.
146. The faith in the nine tatvas, preaches by Jinas, is the right faith.  The nine ‘Tatvas; are ;
1. Soul  2. An inanimate object 3. Punya
4. Papa  5. Asharva   6. Samvar
7. Nirjara  8.  Bandh   9. Moksha

(1) Soul is knowledge. Consciousness is knowledge.
(2) Incapability of knowing, absence of consciousness is the attribute of on inanimate object.
(3) A holy act means ‘Punya’.
(4) An unholy act means ‘Papa’.
(5) Entry of karmas is ‘Asharva’.
(6) Restraint of karmas is ‘Samvar’.
(7) Dispelling of karmas is ‘Nirjara’.
(8) Chaining of the soul with the karmas is ‘Bandha’.
(9) Dispelling of karmas completely is ‘Moksha’.

147. The Right Faith may spring forth naturally or may be had by learning.
148. One learns by the process of reasoning by looking at diverse viewpoints and by arriving at the Truth.
149. Right knowledge is the root of Right Faith.
150. The knowledge of Tatvas may be had from persons, learned in Jain religion.
Right Knowledge

151. The knowledge is of five kinds. They are – 1. Mati 2.Shruta 3.  Avathi 4.   Man paryava & 5.  Keval
152. Mati is Talent. It consists of thinking, feeling, remembrance, etc. Talent comes through senses and mind.
153. An object comes in contact with the senses, except the eyes. By this conduct, the process of knowing commences.
154. An object need not come in contact with eyes or with mind. Even then, the process of knowledge is commences.
155. During the process of knowledge, one tries to find what the object is, one thinks over it, one eliminates irrelevant things and arrives at a conclusion.
156. ‘Shruta’ is the second kind of knowledge what one listens to through the ears, what learns from the books, what one learns at the feet of the learned is ‘Shruta’.
157. ‘Shruta’ is accompanied by ‘Mati Gnyan’.  In a way, ‘Shruta Gnyan’, is also the result of ‘Mati Gnyan’.
158. One does not exist in absence of another.
159. ‘Avadhi Gnyan’ consists of seeing things without the assistance of senses or mind.  The soul obtains it directly.
160. Angels and persons in hell have this kind of knowledge by birth.
161. Men, birds and beasts get this kind of knowledge by thinking and reasoning.
162. Knowledge of the thoughts of others is known as ‘Man Paryaya Gnyan’.  Assistance of senses or mind is not needed for this kind of knowledge. It is derived directly by soul.
163. It does not come, unless one completely renounces the World. Even on renunciation, a rare number of persons derive this kind of knowledge.
164. ‘Keval Gnyan’ means a complete knowledge of the self and the entire universe, relating to all the times, past, present and future.

This kind of knowledge is revealed only to those souls, who have dispelled the four kinds of karmas, which sense as hindrance to the knowledge of the self and the Universe.

On the abolition of all the karmas, the soul comes entirely free and attains the Salvation.
Right Conduct

165. The renunciation of violence, of untruth, of theft, of passions and of avarice, amounts to ‘Right conduct’.
166. Leaving the worldly possessions, leaving the relations, acceptance ‘Munitva’ (Monk-hood), until the end of the life, is known as the ‘Right Conduct’.
167. Learning right knowledge, concentrating on self, meditating on self and abnegating temporarily from the physical body is ‘Right Conduct’.
168. A partial renunciation is permissible to those, who cannot completely renounce the World.
169. The partial renunciation is permissible to the extent to which a person can practice it.
170. However, the aim must be to achieve a complete renunciation.
171. Right faith, combined with the right knowledge and right conduct leads one to attain the Salvation. The Combination requires the observance of five vows in case of complete renunciation.  The five vows are;
(1) not to commit violence
(2) not to speak untruth
(3)   not to take any thing unless offered
(4)  to observe complete celibacy and
(5)  to abandon all worldly possessions.
172. In case of partial remuneration, the partial observance of above five vows, coupled with other seven vows, which help the observance of the above five vows.

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