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Indian Culture And Traditions

Significance Of Pitru Paksh, Shraaddh And Tarpan
By T.N.Sethumadhavan, September 2012 [tnsethu@rediffmail.com]

Chapter :

Pitrupaksha

In the context of the question when the offerings to the departed ancestors as described above have to be made, pitru paksha or the fortnight dedicated to the forefathers assumes significance. The fifteen days of the dark fortnight (krishna paksha) of the month of Bhadrapada (according to the lunar calendar) or the month of Ashwin (according to the solar calendar) roughly corresponding to September-October in the Gregorian calendar are called pitru paksha or mahalaya paksha and the new-moon day (amavasya) occurring in that period as Mahalaya Amavasya or Sarvapitru Amavasya. These days are considered to be extremely appropriate for performing the post-death rites (shraaddh, tarpan, daan etc,) to the departed forefathers.

The answer to the question why specifically this period has been chosen lies in the ancient story relating to the Mahabharata hero, Karna. According to tradition, Karna could not get any food to eat when he went after his death to the higher regions, though he could get plenty of silver and gold there. This was because he had donated plenty of gold and silver but not food during his lifetime. Distressed much he prayed to Lord Yama, the god of death, and through his grace, returned to this earth during this paksha or the fortnight. He then gifted plenty of food to the hungry and reached back to his allotted higher plane. Hence annadaana or giving food to the hungry has become the central part of the rituals during these days. Yama also ordained that offerings made on these days would benefit all departed souls whether they were related to the donor or not.

On all the fifteen days, offerings are made to the departed manes, including those whose names or manner of death are not known. On these days tarpan, shraaddha and pinda daan are performed daily according to the procedures under the guidance of a priest. Although these rites are to be carried out daily in this fortnight, it is considered that to perform them on the last day i.e. on Mahalaya Amavasya or Sarva Pitru Amavasya is considered extremely important and highly sacred. Sarvapitri amavasya ("all fathers' new moon day") is intended for all ancestors, irrespective of the lunar day they died. It is the most important day of the Pitru Paksha Those who have missed performing shraddha for any unavoidable reason can do so on this day. A shraddha ritual performed on this day is considered as fruitful as one conducted in the holy city of Gaya, which is considered as a special place to perform these rites.

Persons who perform these rites observe certain basic disciplines or austerities like not having a shave, abstinence from pleasures etc. during this period. As these days are considered inauspicious for any new ventures, no new purchases or business commitments are undertaken. Feeding the priests and other invitee brahmanas with kheer or payasam during this period is considered to be highly pleasing to the pitrus or the manes.

It is called as Mahalaya because the word Maha’ means great or big or large and ‘Laya’ means destruction. Mahalaya therefore means great destruction caused during the war between Deities and Demons wherein large number of Devathas and Rishis had died in the hands of Rakshasas during the period starting from Bhadrapada Bahula Paadyami to Amavasya. These Deities and Rishis are like our forefathers and it is befitting to worship such departed souls during this fortnight that coincides with Mahalaya. Hence, this fortnight has become very sacred and celestial for performing sacred rites to forefathers.

It is believed that the departed souls will attain peace by the rituals and rites performed during Pitru Paksha and they will, in turn, give their blessings to the descendents who performed these ceremonies for their welfare and prosperity of their Vamsam or lineage. It is said that departed souls for whom these rituals are not performed wander aimlessly on the Earth. It is believed that performance of these rites to forefathers will work as a remedy for various mundane problems one may face day to day.

FINALE

Finally, shorn of all the rituals and myths, this is a fortnight of remembrances and thanks giving. It reminds all of us to be grateful to our forefathers on this day and to pray for them who have left this world. Even if our rational mind, soaked in scientific ideas, may not justify the rationale behind these ceremonies, it might still be a good idea to just remember our forefathers and silently pay our obeisance to them.

In this connection the words of Maha Mahopadyaya Dr.P.V.Kane in his work “History of Dharma Shastra” Vol. IV (Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune) can be profitably recalled.

“It is a good practice to set apart at least one day in a year for the remembrance of one’s near and dear relatives, friends and learned people that are no more, to invite relatives, friends and learned people to a dinner in memory of the dead and to bestow monetary gifts on poor but learned persons of character and devoted to the practice of plain living and high thinking. This will be in keeping with our past traditions and will also give a new orientation to and infuse new life into practices that have become lifeless and meaningless to many people”. (Quoted in the “The Concise Encyclopaedia of Hinduism” Vol.3 published by Ramakrishna Math, Bangalore).

Also read
1. Samskaras Origin and significance
2. Naming ceremony
3. Cremation ceremony

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[3] Comment(s) Posted
  1. Comment By - Parag Sengupta Date - 07 Nov 2012 Time - 1:03PM
  2. Actually the way Pandits are performing and describing the meaning of Mantras, we all are loosing interest and faith on our rites

  3. Comment By - Manasi A Satwaskar Date - 29 Sep 2012 Time - 9:37AM
  4. “With reference to Seema Burman`s comments my observations are as follows. According to the opinion of the Pandits who conduct these rites, the son is the first choice for performing such rituals. If there is no son then, the daughter`s son is recommended. If however, there are no children then any one in the family who is eligible can perform the Sraaddha or an adopted son can perform the Sraaddha. If there are many sons, the eldest should perform the rites. If the sons are living at different addresses then only one should perform the rite. (Here the opinion differs. Some say that each son is eligible to perform the ritual). In the absence of a son, the grandson or great-grandson can also perform the rite. One`s brother`s son, one`s wife or husband can perform the rite if there is no son. (The daughter is excluded because she is considered to belong to the family to which she has gone on account of marriage). The husband should NOT perform Sraaddha for his wife if their son is alive. In the absence of all the above, the Shishya (a student of spirituality) can perform the Sraaddha. Above all, the Pandit (priest) can perform the Sraaddha in the absence of all the above, at all times. (This alternative applies to cases where the son is available and yet he does not want to perform these rites for his own reasons). Sraaddha can be performed and Tillanjali can be offered for father, grandfather, great grandfather.mother, grandmother, great grandmother, both paternal and maternal also maternal and paternal uncles, fathers-in law, mothers-in-law, brothers and sisters. These days, we skip the ancient traditions and consider them as irrelevant and of no use. We also oppose them as much we can. But we should question ourselves whether we are thereby making this world a better place to live in harmony with others and environment. The answer to this is already given by Dr.P.V.Kane, an authority on Dharma Shastras, quoted in the article. ---Sethumadhavan” Unquote

  5. Comment By - seema burman Date - 27 Sep 2012 Time - 3:47AM
  6. but what if there is no son in a family? Or the son has no faith in the rituals? Pls explain that also.


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