Understanding the link between 1992-93 riots and the 1993 Mumbai blasts

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Many  of those who opposed the hanging of Yakub Menon for his role in the  1993 Mumbai blasts also suggest that the blasts were linked to the  riots that preceded them. Justice for the blasts is one thing, but  what about justice for the victims of the riots? This article seeks  to share insights and put things in perspective. The two events  cannot be seen as direct cause and effect, for there were other  independent developments that made the whole situation combustible.

Sharad  Pawar was Chief Minister of Maharashtra till June 1991 after which he  became Defence Minister in the Narasimha Rao government. Pawar wanted  a trusted successor and so Sudhakarrao Naik was made CM.

In  1992, former Deputy Municipal Commissioner GR Khairnar had started  demolitions of illegal structures, many of which belonged to the  underworld in the Muslim-dominated areas of South Mumbai. Around the  same time, the Mumbai Police took action against criminals, some of  whom were Muslims.

Such  demolitions were unheard of till then or even subsequently, but Naik  had a mind of his own.

After  6 December 1992, Muslims were angry about another demolition – that  of the Babri Masjid. This offered the perfect setting for pent-up  anger to surface and disturb political equations.

First,  there were protests against the demolition of the masjid. Those who  were affected by the demolition of illegal structures in the city  added fuel to the fire. Later, even criminal elements got involved.

When  faced with an aggressive and violent mob during a riot, the police  tend to fire at some point. They do not always follow the normal  sequence of lathi charge, tear gas and then fire. Since the mobs were  comprised Muslims, the casualties were mainly Muslim.

The  violence in December 1992 involved the police and Muslims. Some of  the headlines and newspaper stories of that time read like this: "Two  Constables in Deonar jurisdiction were killed with choppers and  swords by rampaging Muslims mobs. One constable was done to death in  Byculla jurisdiction". On 7th December 1992, three police  personnel were killed and 216 injured.

It  is clear that some of the protests were violent. In this context, the  issue was this: when

faced  with violent protestors who were damaging public property, should the  police be passive bystanders and run for their lives, as they did in  August 2012 during the Azad Maidan protests and violence, or take  appropriate action? “It  was sheer luck that we were able to rescue the policemen from the  vans. The mob had locked them in and was not allowing them to come  out,” a  senior police officer told The  Hindu about mob violence in August 2012.

To  see pictures of August 11, 2012 violence in Mumbai Click here

Returning  to 1992, the Shiv Sena began protests against the holding of namaz on  streets and the use of loud-speakers for azaan. It started Maha-artis  from 26 December 1992, and though these incidents were not violent,  they added to communal tension.

It  is also worth recalling the 2005  Supreme Court order  on the use of loud-speakers beyond specific decibel levels, and their  non-use before 6am. But to date, there does not seem to have been any  concerted effort to seek compliance with the order. But in 1992-93,  these too were reasons for communal  tensions.

Back  to 1992. As the Maha-artis continued, on 5 January 1993, five Mathadi  workers (loaders) were stabbed to death, allegedly by Feroze Konkani,  who is supposed to have fled to Pakistan (Note: he was arrested in  1995 for the murder of BJP's Ramdas Nayak).

On  8 January, some Hindu homes at Radhabai Chawl (in a predominantly  Muslim basti) in Jogeshwari were set on fire. One male and five  female members of a family (the Banes) were charred to death.

The  late Varsha Bhonsle wrote: "Six witnesses declared that the  attackers stood around shouting "Allah-o-Akbar" and fled  only when they heard the police sirens. The Supreme Court acquitted  11 Muslims who were earlier convicted by the special TADA judge for  the murder of six Hindus in the Radhabai Chawl case. Abu Azmi paid  for most of the legal expenses, and advocate Majeed Memon filed the  petition in SC". To  read full article Click here

When  six people were burnt alive, surely someone must have been  responsible for the hideous crime! Or can it be said that the Bane  family set themselves on fire to provoke Hindu-Muslim riots?

Screenshot  of Hindustan Times' coverage of the riots. Click on Rediff link to  see screenshot.

The  Congress-run state government cited three reasons for the Mumbai  riots. "One is stabbing of two Mathadi workers. Two is killing  of 37 people, following 138 cases of stabbing in 48 hours, after 6  January. Three is burning to death of four members in Radhabhai Chawl  on January 8. Though the Maharashtra government has not said so, a  clear inference which can be drawn from the incidents mentioned is  that the attacks by Muslims provoked the riots" (excerpts from  The  Times of India,  19 February, 1993).

It  is only after the incidents of 5 and 8 January that the rioting got  worse and there was massive involvement of Hindu groups.

The  final death count in the Mumbai riots was 275 Hindus, 575 Muslims,  and 50 others, including unknowns. The  causes of death  were police firing 356, stabbing 347, arson 91, mob action 80,  private firing 22 and others 4. 

Prime  Minister Narasimha Rao probably watched the situation unfold but was  probably too busy warding off Pawar who wanted to become PM.

Did  infighting in the Congress contribute to the high casualty rate in  the 1993 riots? The  Sunday Observer wrote this on 10 January 1993 quoting the then AICC general  secretary, Janardhan Poojary: "The assertion by AICC general  secretary in Hyderabad today that the Bombay riots were (be)cause of  infighting within the Maharashtra unit of the party is being echoed  by senior Congressmen here. According to a UNI report, Poojari said  that 'some disgruntled elements within the Congress' were fanning  communal violence in order to seek removal of CM Naik".

It  was in this context that the Mumbai blasts took place in March 1993.  Rao used the blasts to send Sharad Pawar back to Maharashtra as CM –  and saviour. The situation in Mumbai quickly returned to where it was  prior to his departure in 1991.

To  conclude, it is not quite correct to say that the communal riots of  1992 and early 1993 were largely about targeting Muslims, though they  certainly lost more lives. Two, the demolition of illegal structures  in Mumbai and the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, and Congress infighting,  played a role in making the riots worse than they should have been.  Three, violence by Muslims began in December 1992. The Hindu attacks  commenced in January 1993 after the Mathadi and Radhabai chawl  killings. Four, 40 percent of the deaths were caused by police  firing.

Those  the survivors of the riots are still seeking justice, but one cannot  justify the 1993 blasts using this as pretext.

The  author is an independent columnist

First  published Click here to view

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1. Not just Modi, guide to communal riots before 2002 and after