CHAPTER 2 – BRAHMANANDA VALLI

MANTRA

SECTION 6 – BRAHMAN: THE ONE BEING AND THE SOURCE OF ALL

asanneva sa bhavati . asad.hbrahmeti veda chet.h
asti brahmeti chedveda . santamenam tato viduriti .

tasyaisha eva sharira atma . yah purvasya
athato.anuprashnah . utavidvanamum lokam pretya
kashchana gachchati3 u .##3 this is a mark for prolonging the vowel in the form ## .a.a.a##]##
aho vidvanamum lokam pretya kashchitsamashnuta 3 u
so.akamayata
bahu syam prajayeyeti . sa tapo.atapyata . sa tapastaptva
ida{\m+} sarvamasrijata . yadidam ki~ncha . tatsrishtva
tadevanupravishat.h . tadanupravishya . sachcha tyachchabhavat.h
niruktam chaniruktam cha . nilayanam chanilayanam cha
vij~nanam chavij~nanam cha . satyam chanritam cha satyamabhavat.h
yadidam ki~ncha . tatsatyamityachaxate
tadapyesha shloko bhavati .. 1..

“If a person knows Brahman as non—existent, he himself becomes non—existent. If he knows Brahman as existent, then (knowers of Brahman) know him as existent.”

This (sheath of bliss) is the embodied soul of the former (the sheath of intellect). Thereupon the following questions of the pupil: Does anyone who knows not (Brahman) attain that World after departing this life? Or does he who knows (Brahman) attain that World after departing this life?

(The answer) He (the Supreme Self) desired: “May I be many, may I be born. He performed austerities. Having performed austerities, He created all this— whatever there is. Having created all this, He entered into it. Having entered into it, He became both the manifested and the unmanifested, both the defined and undefined, both the supported and unsupported, the intelligent and the non— intelligent, both the real and the unreal. The Satya (the True) became all this: whatever there is. Therefore (the wise) call It (Brahman) the True.

On the above there is also the following mantra.

After discussing the sheaths surrounding the Indweller, the Upanishad now takes up a dialogue about the Indweller (Brahman) himself. The section starts with a doubt regarding the existence or non-existence of Brahman. As an answer to the doubt it says that in accordance with his desire, Brahman projected all the creation, both with form and without form. Then he entered the objects created and became many as the seer, hearer, thinker, knower etc. The same Brahman dwells in the hearts of all and manifests himself in all acts of cognition. Therefore the conclusion is that Brahman is real or that He exists.

The section starts with the description of the fruit of believing and non-believing Brahman. If somebody feels that there is no such thing as Brahman, he himself becomes non-existent i.e. develops arbitrariness of behavior leading to his downfall. On the contrary if he believes that Brahman is there, such a person is reckoned as a saintly one by the wise and exalted. This is because faith in the divine existence is the stepping stone for acquiring divine knowledge.

As in the case of the other sheaths, in the anandamaya kosa also there is an indweller but that indweller is not a different entity but the anandamaya kosa itself because there is no difference between the two. The bliss which is the indweller in the other sheaths is its own indweller in the bliss sheath. There is no other atman as the antaryami in the bliss sheath.

It is possible to have a doubt whether Brahman exists or does not exist. To clear this doubt the Upanishad goes in great details regarding the origin of creation about which a brief discussion already took place in the First Section of this Chapter.

The Upanishad says that before creation, Brahman brooded over the matter and thought of manifesting Himself into many. So resolving, he created this universe consisting of sentient and insentient, and entered into them i.e. projected the universe out of his own power of maya which consists of objects with form and without form, some describable and others undescribable. The same Brahman, the same Truth,  appeared as truth and untruth both, That is why wise persons say that whatever is visible, audible or object of comprehension, it is a form of Paramatman, the truth itself. In this regard there is a sloka as follows.

iti shashtho.anuvakah ..

End of Section 6 - Chapter 2

SECTION 7 – BRAHMAN AS BLISS AND FEARLESSNESS

asadva idamagra asit.h . tato vai sadajayata
tadatmana{\m+} svayamakuruta
tasmattatsukritamuchyata iti .

yadvai tat.h sukritam.h . raso vai sah
rasa{\m+} hyevayam labdhva.a.anandi bhavati . ko hyevanyatkah

pranyat.h . yadesha akasha anando na syat.h
esha hyeva.a.anandayati .

yada hyevaisha etasminnadrishye.anatmye.anirukte.anilayane.abhayam
\medskip
pratishtham vindate . atha so.abhayam gato bhavati .
yada hyevaisha etasminnudaramantaram kurute .
atha tasya bhayam bhavati . tatveva bhayam vidusho.amanvanasya .
tadapyesha shloko bhavati .. 1.

“In the beginning all this was non—existent. From it was born what exists. That created Itself by Itself; therefore It is called the self—made.” That which is Self—made is flavour; for truly, on obtaining the flavour one becomes blissful. Who could direct the prana and the apana if this Bliss did not exist in the akasa? Brahman verily exists because It alone bestows bliss. When a man finds fearless support in That which is invisible, incorporeal, indefinable and supportless, he has then obtained fearlessness. If he makes the slightest differentiation in It, there is fear for him. That becomes fear for the knower who does not reflect.

Before manifesting, this universe of sentient and insentient was non-existent i.e. was in an unmanifest state. From that came the existent with names and forms. Brahman transformed Himself by Himself into the universe of sentient and insentient objects. Therefore He is known as sukrita, the self-created.

The Parmatma who is referred to as sukrita is really the ananda Himself because the jivatma who undergoes the miseries of birth and death becomes happy only after realizing Brahman. All beings make movements and act only with the support of Brahman, the bliss itself. All physical actions in the world are made possible only because of Brahman. Therefore the seeker must believe that the Lord does exist and provides joy to everybody. When the source of bliss  is paramatman alone then  who else can provide joy? Because, whenever this jivatma realizes the Brahman, which is invisible, formless, indefinable, requiring no support from any other source, then he becomes completely fearless and gets rid of sorrow forever.

So long as this jiva maintains the difference or feels the duality between itself and the Paramatman, so long as the jivatma does not get established in Brahman, till then there will be fear of birth and death. This fear will be experienced by not only the ignorant but the wise also if they are proud.

iti saptamo.anuvakah ..

End of Section 7 - Chapter 2