Perennial Psychology Of The Bhagwad Geeta

  • By Swami Rama
  • January 2002
  • 55697 views
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Courtesy and copyright The Himalayan Institute Press

The Holy Geeta entered my life in the autumn of 1993. I was sitting in Chennai’s Taj Coromandal one evening not knowing what to do when I happened to see the Holy Geeta by Swami Chinamayanandji. Something attracted me and I got down to reading it. In eight years am on my third read now. It has become my best friend. When I am feeling low, confused or lonely I open the Gita, read a few pages and feel content thereafter. The beauty is that the interpretation of various slokhas is different every time I read it. May be it has to do with the stages and situations in my life. The one by Swamiji is very good for a spiritually evolved person. What I like in the one by Swami Rama is that it easy to understand, very good for a person who is reading the Geeta for the first time.

A bit about Swami Rama. Swamiji founded the Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy, the Himalayan Institute Hospital Trust in India and many centers across the world. A student of both Himalayan cave monasteries European universities, he founded the Himalayan Institute to create a bridge between the ancient teachings of the East and modern scientific approaches of the West. Visit them at www.himalayaninstitute.org.

Some people associate the Holy Geeta with Sanathan Dharam. To my mind it has universal application, shows us how to handle the problems of life, be happy inspite of ups and downs, perform duty without being attached to the fruits of action etc. The Geeta is eternal, as relevant today as it was thousands of years ago.

For your convenience I have reproduced the book verbatim. The format is as follows. It starts with an introduction followed by excerpts from individual chapters. Each chapter consists of slokhas with commentaries. Besides explaining the slokha, the commentary highlight the comparison between eastern and western psychology. It has my comments in brackets to help you distinguish it from the original text.

“The Bhagawad Gita is the fountainhead of eastern psychology and this commentary is designed to draw out its psychological concepts and make them accessible to all students. These profound insights are intertwined with philosophical concepts, so the task undertaken here is to separate the psychological principles and to explain them their practical application. The word philosophy is a compound of two words, philo and Sophia, which means ‘love for knowledge’. There are 18 chapters in the Gita each describing a different aspect of the process of self-transformation. The aim of the Gita is to teach the aspirant how to establish equanimity in his internal life and in his activities in the external world, to help him develop that tranquility within, and to explain the art and science of doing actions skillfully and selflessly.

The book aims at helping you understand your inner potentials, it is not possible to function effectively and harmoniously in the external world, for all the things happen within before they are expressed externally. Sri Krishna modified and simplified the Vedic and Upanishadic knowledge with the Geeta.

Modern psychologists attempt to help the client modify his conscious attitudes and unconscious behaviors, but their analysis lacks the depth and profundity found in the Gita. Most modern therapists do not explore the purpose and meaning of life. They do not go to the root of the problem but analyze it without understanding the fundamental cause. By contrast Sri Krishna presents a philosophical foundation for understanding the purpose of life and the way to live life harmoniously, and he offers Arjuna practical advice on living and coping with the world”.

The Holy Geeta has changed the way I think, my attitude to life and the world at large. The site www.esamskriti.com is a manifestation of the influence the Geeta has had on my life.

You are able to read excerpts from the Holy Geeta due to the Herculean efforts of my assistant Ajay who has typed 125 word pages as if it were part of his Dharma. Ishwar please makes his dreams come true and bless him.

The essay has the following chapters –

1. Arjuna’s despondency.
2. The Way of Self Knowledge.
3. The Yoga of Action.
4. Knowledge of Renouncing Fruits.
5. Knowledge of Renunciation and Action.
6. The Path of Meditation.
7. Knowledge of the Absolute in its Entirety.
8. Knowledge of the Eternal.
9. Knowledge of the Royal and Secret Path.
10. The Glorious Manifestations of the Lord.
11. Yogic Vision.
12. The Yoga of Devotion.
13. Knowledge of the Field and the Knower.
14. The Profound Knowledge of the Three Gunas.
15. The Eternal Tree of Life.
16. The Destiny of the Sages and the Ignorant.
17. Three Modes of Conviction.
18. The Wisdom of Renunciation and Liberation.
19. Glossary of Sanskrit terms.

Arjuna’s Despondency

Dhritarashtra asked

1. What did my sons and the sons of Pandu do, O Sanjaya, gathered together on the battlefield of righteousness, Kurukshetra, with the intent to fight ?

Ignorant and unjust people are spiritually blind. Because of their selfish way of life, they do not accept reality. Dhritarashtra usurped the kingdom of the innocent and righteous, refusing to hand over the lawful rights of his nephews. In every family, society or organization the elders must give the younger members their proper rights. When that is not done, frustration develops and creates a reaction in the minds of those whose rights have been snatched unjustly. (The same applies to parents handling of children. When parents do not give their children space, are perpetually finding fault, suppressing their feelings, hitting them they become rebels, aggressive and sometimes defensive).

People forget that their span of life in this transitory world is brief and should be utilized to perform those actions that are helpful on the path to enlightenment rather than to perform actions that will create further bondage. Self-realization is the ultimate goal of life. Not realizing that fact, the ignorant waste the precious moments of life that could be utilized for spiritual progress and for the benefit of others. Selfishness contracts the personality rather than allowing it to expand to universal awareness. Ignorant people like Dhritarashtra live only for themselves and do not show consideration for others. (From personal experience I can say that we derive far more happiness by being helpful to others).

Arjuna was aware that without profound knowledge of the Eternal, external and mundane power and wealth are not at all helpful in fulfilling the purpose of life. The central theme of life is to awake, arise, and gain knowledge. If that is not constantly remembered, one becomes lost in the jungle of the external world. One should always be a ware of the purpose of life, for it is only awareness of the Eternal that prevents one from being dissipated and distracted by the charms and temptations of the world. When a student like Arjuna constantly remains in contact with his teacher, and a competent teacher like Sri Krishna is teaching him, liberation becomes easy and is attained here and now. (At some point of time possibly before 35, we must ask ourselves What is it that we want from life? To find the right answer first we need to look within, know ourselves, our inner nature, ascertain what is it that makes us tick).

Sanjaya replied

2. King Duryodhana, seeing the force of the Pandavas deployed in battle formation, approached his preceptor, Drona, and addressed him in these words:

3. O Preceptor, see this great army of the sons of Pandu deployed in battle formation by your intelligent disciple, the son of Drupada.

4. Here are brave men like Bhima and Arjuna, with their great bows, intent upon war; Yuyudhana, Virata, and Drupada, each commanding eleven thousand chariots.

5. Dhrishtaketu; Chekitana; the virile King of Kashi; Purujit Kuntibhoja; and Shaibya, the bull among men.

6. Here are the strident Yudhamanyu; the virile Uttamaujas; Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadra; and the five sons of Draupadi, all of them great commanders.

A human being need not waste his time and energy gathering great means to fulfill the purpose of life. He can live with few means if he knows how to utilize those few means correctly and at the right time. That skill is developed as one learns to coordinate his different faculties and modifications of mind. It results from sincere efforts made by the aspirant to develop full clarity of mind, which is the very basis of actions performed successfully in the external world. Mind and action are virtually one and the same: one is a seed and the other a plant that bears flowers and fruit. (Clarity of thought comes when our mind is free from agitations, which in turn come from desire.)

It is important for one to be aware of both his strengths and his weaknesses, for without such awareness, success in life remains a mere dream. An aspirant should first learn to strengthen the faculty of discrimination and judgment. That faculty enables him to recognize both sets of qualities as they within himself: those that inspire him to attain his goal and those that create barriers for him and dissipate his will power. Every sadhaka should first learn to examine and be aware of those two factors.

One whose mind is imbalanced due to a lack of moral courage can use brute force to support his ideas, but he can never remain in peace and happiness. What good is life when one is torn by anxiety, which weakens his inner strength? Such a person experiences defeat in fighting the battle of life, although he has many external means to support him.

Parents play a significant role in shaping the lives of their children, and thus the sons of Dhritarashtra follow in the footsteps of their unjust father. When parents are greedy, egotistical, conniving, and unjust, their children consciously and unconsciously develop the same characteristics. Human society suffers as a result of self-created misery because the elders do not realize that children trained in an unjust atmosphere will also become unjust. As one rotten fish pollutes the whole pool, so one man can mislead an entire society. Therefore a king or leader should be righteous and just and should stand as examples for others to follow. Dhritarashtra is the antithesis of such an example. (How many parents realize the impact of their behavior on their children. I have known of parents who fight their children, think of the impact on a child’s mind).

Many great civilizations have been destroyed by foolish, selfish, and greedy leaders. For instance, Nero was delighted to see his kingdom burning, and in the second world war Hitler was obsessed by war hysteria and became imbalanced, thinking of nothing but killing and destroying other nations. Many examples of such atrocities committed by kings and leaders in the past and present could be cited. Why do we forget that this world is a field of action and that if we learn to perform our actions skillfully and righteously, our journey will become a perennial song?

10. This force of ours supervised by Bhishma, is large but inadequate; however, the force of these (Pandavas) supervised by Bhima, is small but adequate.

Although Duryodhana has superior strength, he has an inferiority complex that shows itself in his jealous feelings toward the Pandavas. He knows he is fighting a war for unjust and unrighteous motives. When enveloped in selfishness, even the mightiest cannot be victorious, for inner strength alone motivates one to successfully fight in the battlefield of life and to skillfully perform his actions and duties. By contrast, selfish motivation weakens the will and inner strength. One who is selfishly motivated cannot persuade the conscience, which judges one’s intentions before he decides to act, to take his side. Such a human being continually creates a division within himself by ignoring his conscience and continuing to follow the path of unrighteousness. He knows what truth is, but his actions are motivated by selfishness, greed, and possessiveness. Duryodhana’s situation is exactly like that: his inner strength is weakened by the division he has created within himself. Although Duryaodhana has the stronger army and skilled generals, he is unsure of his victory.

When a king suffers from an inferiority complex, he may act as though he is superior, but such a person actually feels inadequate underneath his false show of bravado. There is no such thing as a superiority complex: there is only one complex, and that is inferiority. When one is aware of his weaknesses but does not know how to rid himself of them, he creates a shield for his protection; when one does not want to accept and confront his weaknesses; he puts on a false front and acts as though he is superior. Such people actually think they are superior to others because they have not learned to accept things as they are. A sense of superiority is like a house of cards that can crumble at the touch of a finger. (I had a friend who was five feet tall but was always very aggressive, actually very touchy as if to hide the inferiority complex that he suffered from).

Everyone has weaknesses. Wise is he who acknowledges his weaknesses and works steadily to remove them and to replace them with the essential virtues that strengthen him and make him brave, fearless, and truthful. There is always a war between the forces of virtue and vice. Weakness may appear to be strong because it persistently resists accepting and acknowledge its reverse side. Virtue, however, has genuine strength because it is a product of a balanced mind. Weakness arises from imbalance, whereas balance is the true source of strength.

Even though Duryodhana has the most powerful army and the best generals, still he lacks confidence. And when one is not sure of himself, it is difficult for him to be victorious. Confidence comes from inner strength, from the inner conscience that constantly judges one’s thoughts, feelings, desires, and motivations. One’s conscience protects him from the traps laid by his weaknesses.

12. Causing Duryodhana great joy, the elder of the Kurus, the grandfather Bhishma, a man of splendor, loudly roaring a lion roar, blew the conch.

13. Then conches, kettle drums, tabors, drums, and trupets suddenly blared forth, and that sound was tumultuous.

14. Then, standing in a great chariot drawn by white horses, Krishna and Arjuna also blew their celestial conches.

15. Krishna, the Lord of Senses, blew his conch named Panchajanya, and Arjuna, the Winner of Wealth, blew his conch, named Devadatta; Bhima, he of fierce deeds, blew his great conch, named Paundra.

16. King Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, blew the conch Anantavijaya; Nakula and Sahadeva blew their conches, named Sughosha and Mani-pushpaka respectively.

17. And the King of Kashi, the excellent archer, as well as Shikhandi, the great charioteer, Dhrishtadyumna, Virata, and the unconquerable Satyaki.

18. Drupada and the sons of Draupadi, each and every one, O King, the mighty-armed son of Subhadra-they all blew their conches, each his own.

The leaders of both armies blow their conches, and the armies beat their drums and blow their trumpets to inspire their own soldiers. First Duryodhana’s army creates a fierce sound to terrorize the Pandavas, but the Pandavas’ army returns a mighty sound with full confidence. The gestures and sounds that are created to frighten the opposition have two possible origins: fear and confidence. When human beings are frightened, they do not create music but frightful sounds. Sri Krishna and Arjuna, who are confident of their strength, create a melodic sound. In fact, the whole of the Bhagavad Gita is a dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna that creates a beautiful melody, a divine song. The sounds created by Duryodhana’s drummers are violent; they are created out of excitement, fear, and anxiety. Their sound does not compose any poetry or song, for it has its origin in the destructive aspect of Shakti, the primal force that resides within. That primal force has two aspects: one is merciful, gentle, and kind; the other is cruel, brutal, and annihilating. The war represents the inner conflict between the annihilating and merciful powers within each person.

26. There the son of Pritha saw those who were like fathers and grandfathers to him, teachers, uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, as well as companions,

27. Fathers-in-law, as well as friends in both armies; seeing all those kinsmen standing there, Arjuna the son of Hunti,

28. Possessed by a pitiful mood, feeling very sad, said these words: I see these kinsmen present here with the intent to fight.

When Arjuna inspects the opposing army, he sees that among its leaders are his teachers, cousins, father-in-law, and other close relatives and friends. He suddenly becomes affected by his attachment to his relatives, sinks into a self-created pool of sorrow, and forgets his purpose. Attachment is the greatest source of misery. The strands of attachment bind the sadhaka and weaken his determination, will, and inner strength. He forgets the ultimate goal of life and becomes a victim of mundane and transitory relationships.

In such situations, aspirants may begin to argue with their teachers. Such an exchange can be helpful on the path of sadhana, for it becomes a process of learning if it occurs between a sincere student and a wise preceptor. The dialogue helps one to confront and analyze his weaknesses. Sri Krishna, a perfect yogi, is aware of Arjuna’s inner turmoil and allows him to express himself.

When one experiences the grief and sorrow that arise from attachment, he does not remain wise, and the unwise cannot discriminate right from wrong. Because of his involvement and attachment, Arjuna becomes confused and loses his objectivity. Thus he cannot reach impartial conclusions and act justly. One who is enveloped in attachment is incapable of knowing or deciding things correctly. One who is attached to the mundane life argues irrationally and is unable to understand the consequences of his actions.

29. My limbs are frozen, my mouth is drying up, my body trembles and hairs stand on, the great bow, is slipping from my hand, and my skin is burning. Nor can I stand end.

30. Gandiva up; my mind is, as it were, whirling;

Sorrow, infatuation, and other emotions weaken the body and sap the physical strength of even a healthy man. A black bee has tremendous power, enabling it to bore a hole through wood, but when the bee becomes infatuated with the fragrance of the lotus blossom, it is unable to escape from the closing lotus petals that hold it captive after the sunsets. The history of mankind is a testimony to the fact that infatuation for alcohol, an imbalanced attitude toward sexuality, and other addictions weaken human strength. The sorrow that comes as a result of being addicted to objects of the world has power to change the tissues of the body and can turn a trim and taut figure into a flabby one.

The endocrine glands react instantly to stressful situations, and so during a state of anxiety and depression, certain symptoms are noticed. For example, dryness of the mouth occurs because the salivary glands do not secrete sufficiently. If one receives shocking, sorrowful news about someone he loves, that shock may make him cry, and the body may begin to shake and tremble. Evenness of breath and the motion of the lungs, which play a vital role in the regulation of the body, are disturbed. Then the heartbeat becomes irregular, and the blood supply to the brain is inadequate. These are some of the ways that infatuations and emotions interfere with the body’s normal responses and have the power to create an imbalance in the body.

Because of such emotional imbalances the body starts building up toxins,

and the pores lose their capacity to expel the toxic buildup That disturbs the equilibrium in two systems of the human body: the system that purifies and cleanses the body (the pores, lungs, kidneys, and bowels) and the system that nourishes the body (the liver, spleen, heart, brain, and so on).

If one is addicted to drugs such as heroin and the drugs are suddenly withdrawn, he experiences severe debilitating symptoms. In a similar way when one is strongly attached to an object in the external world and looses or anticipates the loss of that object, he suffers physical symptoms such as those experienced by Arjuna From the yogic perspective attachment and addiction are equivalent terms: both lead to emotional and physical suffering.

Many mental and physical disorders are the result of attachment to the objects of the world. If the object to which one is attached is threatened, one becomes afraid, and because of the fear of losing the object, he loses mental balance. An imbalanced mind is a source of much misery. and attachment is the cause of all misery. Modern psychologists and physicians are becoming aware that psychological disorders are the main source of many physical diseases and imbalances. Self-created misery is the source from which psychosomatic diseases spring. But that which originates in the mind and is expressed through the body are difficult to cure with medicine. Many of the ills of human life cannot be alleviated by drugs and other physical means.

Modern psychologists

need to develop better methods for treating psychosomatic disorders, for analysis remains ineffective and psychological imbalances continue to disturb the physical condition of many clients. Mind and body are in the habit of reacting to one another. Physical pains are recorded, stored, and memorized by the mind. Therefore the mind is bound to be affected by physical pain. Physical diseases disturb the nervous system and mental life, but the problems that originate in the mind and then reflect on the body are even more serious. When the mind-the center of sensitivity, feeling, thoughts, and desires-is disturbed, the body is tormented and experiences innumerable sorts of pain.

The medicines prescribed to treat mental disorders and diseases caused by mental disturbance do not resolve the underlying disturbance; they merely dull the sensitivity of the nervous system. The pain remains, but for some time one does not experience it. Such medicines are not cures but only temporary means for soothing the suffer. The body and mind should be thoroughly understood as one unit. Only then will effective means of treatment be developed. One can attain a profound comprehension of mind / body interaction by studying the nature of each from different angles. To understand the body, one should study the body’s needs and capacities while eating, sleeping, working, and during times of physical attraction toward others. The inseparable link of these two realities, physical and mental, is pranic energy, called the breath of life.

31. And I see inauspicious omens, O Krishna; nor do I see any good accruing upon killing my own kinsmen in the battle.

32. I do not desire victory, O Krishna, nor kingdom, nor comforts. What use do we have for kingdom, Lord of the Sense, and what to us is enjoyment of pleasures or even life itself?

33. They for whose sake we might desire a kingdom, pleasures, and comforts are standing here before us on the battlefield, having abandoned their very lives and wealth.

34. Teacher, father-like elders, sons as well as grandfathers, uncles fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives-

35. I do not wish to kill them even if they are killing me, O Destroyer of Illusion, not even for the sake of the kingdom of the three worlds. How then could I do so merely for the sake of this earth?

36. What pleasure can we derive by killing the sons of Dhritarashtra, O Faultless One? Only sin can accrue to us by killing these felons.

37. Therefore, it does not behoove us to kill the sons of Dhritarashtra, our kinsmen. How can we be happy after killing our very own relatives, O Krishna?

38. Though the Kauravas’ minds are impaired by greed and so are not seeing, the fault accrues by the destruction of the family and the sin in the desire to injure friends.

39. How then should we not know enough to turn away from this sin, as we are able to see the fault that accrues upon the destruction of the family, O Krishna?

Dhritarashtra, the blind father of Duryodhana, asked Sanjaya to persuade the Pandavas not to take up arms. Sanjaya gave a long sermon, saying “O Dharma (Yudhishthira, the eldest brother of the Pandavas), you are the best of men and would never violate the moral law of society. You have the capacity to forgive the sins of the Kauravas. It certainly does not behoove you to be cruel, to fight a fierce war, and to kill your cousins and teachers.” Sanjaya advised the Pandavas to become renunciates and suggested that begging would be superior to fighting the war. He gave that religious sermon on renunciation just before the war was about to be fought, and Arjuna’s dejection and despondency were brought about by it.

Suggestion creates a hypnotic effect, and hypnosis diminishes the faculty of discrimination. People in general are very much influenced by the suggestions of others, and suggestion is, in fact, the very basis of modern education. It is the wrong method of education, for one loses the ability to inquire and just follows what he has been told without logic and reasoning. If we learn how to free ourselves from the impressions received by suggestive education, we can then independently learn that which is useful, healthy and valid. There are higher and superior methods of learning and exploring, and there are many dimensions of knowledge that are as yet unexplored by the vast majority of people.

Brahma Vidya (the knowledge of absolute Truth) is the highest knowledge, and direct experience is the best means of gaining that knowledge. Direct experience is by far the finest means to attain knowledge in any dimension of life. One should learn through direct experience, for that alone is valid. All other methods are incomplete and therefore misleading. An aspirant should carefully choose a path for himself by examining his capacities, abilities, and strengths. He should avoid suggestive ideas and thus not become distracted and dissipated. Reading books that dissipate and distract one’s mind should be avoided. Conversing with those who are not on the path and living in the company of those who do not practice sadhana also lead to dissipation. One must encourage the faculty of discrimination within in order to counter such negative influences. Seeking advice from a competent teacher is helpful, for a wise teacher is experienced in receiving knowledge directly, and such unalloyed knowledge is free from the fanciful suggestions and influences of ordinary people.

In modern life we see most people selling their ideas, trying to prove that they are right. To support their notions, they quote the scriptures or seek other justification. Such a person gives many suggestions to his own mind, for before one can seduce others, he must first seduce himself. Modern man is blind; he does not understand the purpose of life. He sees only the imaginary world that self-suggestion and the suggestions of others have created. He desires quick results and wants to do things in his own way without consideration for others.

There are four types of people:

those who are time oriented, those who are goal oriented, those who are life oriented, and those who are purpose oriented.

In today’s world we find mostly time-oriented people. They are selfish, narrow, and conceited. Time oriented people do things to fulfill their selfish ends without purpose or goal and are not aware of the consequences of their actions. Time is fleeting for them. They have no sense of tomorrow, so they demand immediate gratification. They react impulsively to external stimuli to fulfill their desires for sensory gratification. They take advantage of others; they cannot think beyond their own concerns. Slightly higher are those whose lives are directed toward certain goals. Those goals, however, are related to the pleasures of the mundane and temporal world. But at least those people have goals and do not act impulsively like time-oriented people. Higher still is the life of those who try to remain in peace and to live in harmony. They believe in co-existence as a way of life, so they do not like to disturb the equilibrium of others nor do they desire to possess unlawfully the wealth and property of others. But the highest path is followed by those who are purpose oriented and who direct all their energies and use all their resources to fulfill their single purpose: Self-realization. Duryodhana is time oriented and is not at all conscious of the purposefully oriented life. Arjuna, by contrast, is expected to be an embodiment of a purposefully oriented life, but he slips from the highest to the lowest level because of the influences of attachment

40. Upon the disappearance of family traditions and rules of conduct, vice and unrighteousness subdue the entire family.

41. When subdued by vice, O Krishna the women of the family become corrupted; when the women are corrupted, O Ruler of your clan, there occurs confusion of the social structure.

42. Such confusion leads only to hell for the whole family, including those who have destroyed the family. Even the ancestors fall into hell, since the rites and observances for preventing them from doing so are no longer performed.

43. Because of these faults of the destroyers of the family, which cause the confusion of the social structure, the perennial national traditions as well as the family traditions are uprooted.

44. When the family traditions of human beings are thus uprooted, O Krishna, these human beings have to dwell in hell indefinitely-so have we heard in the tradition.

45. Oh, alas, we are embarking upon committing a great sin as we are preparing to kill our own kinsmen out of greed for kingdom and comfort.

Woman is the builder of society. The institution of family life is her original idea; she is its architect, and she has remained the custodian of the cultural heritage. Even today in Hindu, Jewish, Irish, and several other cultures, the woman is the center and organizer of the family. It is she who plans the disciplinary program for the children. A society that does not give due place to women goes toward degeneration and disintegration, and if a society starts acting in an irresponsible manner, it is because the family institution has become disturbed.

Arjuna, a brilliant thinker and warrior, plunges into grief when he foresees that the heroes killed in the war will leave innumerable widows. When the population becomes imbalanced, having more females than males, it ifs difficult to maintain loyalty toward one mate. And if the mind gets involved outside of the marriage, it becomes distracted. The whole course of the individual’s life is then altered Arjuna has the insight to bring that problem to his consciousness. Of all Arjuna’s arguments, this one makes the most sense.

Perfect understanding between marriage partners is important, and fidelity plays a significant part in that. If fidelity is lost, the values on which the society is erected crumble, and the progeny are weakened. Purity in a marital relationship is a significant factor in sharing a harmonious life together and in giving birth to and raising healthy children. In today’s society fidelity may seem to be a foolish idea. Some Westerners think that fidelity is merely an Eastern more, but that is simply a justification to support irresponsibility.

What is Discipline?

It is not a punishment but a part of growth, without which mental and physical health cannot be maintained. Without practicing discipline, one cannot gather his scattered energy, and all his goals will remain dreams that never materialize.

46. If the sons of Dhritarashtra, with weapons in hand, kill me in the battle while I am unarmed and unavenging, that will be more beneficial to me.

Sanjaya said

47. Having spoken thus, in the middle of the battle Arjuna sat down on the seat of the chariot, putting away the bow together with the arrows, his mind agitated with grief.

The science of yoga is a scientific and practical exploration of the inner life. It is extremely helpful in self-analysis, self-control, and self-transformation. How can one say that it is not suitable and applicable to modern man? Many are prejudiced against the use of yoga psychology because they have only a superficial knowledge of mental life. Their understanding of the human being is fragmented; they have no insight into higher dimensions of consciousness. It is amazing to note that many contemporary Eastern psychologists have been following in the footsteps of other modern psychologists. That is like forgetting reality and chasing a mirage. Although the system developed by yoga science is thorough and complete, many modern scientists are repelled by the word yoga for no good reason. Mere analytical methods and the study of dreams do not help patients much, for they are not taught how to prevent themselves from becoming victims of external stimuli and internal disorganization. If not properly and systematically guided, an aspirant'’ mental train is either derailed or runs in a direction contrary to its destination. Arjuna was fortunate to have Yogeshvara Krishna as a guide and counselor to bring him out of that situation.