National War Memorial Delhi

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1. View of AMAR CHAKRA (circle of Immortality). It comprises of a 15-metre tall obelisk and the eternal flame. The memorial built as a tribute to 22,500 soldiers who made the ‘Supreme Sacrifice’ during the Indo-China War in 1962, the Indo-Pak Wars in 1947, 1965 and 1971, the Kargil Conflict in 1999, and the Indian Peace Keeping Force Operations in Sri Lanka.

2. Side view of Amar Chakra and India Gate. Memorial was inaugurated on February 25 2019 by Prime Minister Modi. The Memorial draws inspiration from the `Chakravyuh` formation.

3. Aerial view. The government approved the project for building a National War Memorial and a National War Museum near India Gate in 2015.

4. Twilight view of the TYAG CHAKRA (circle of sacrifice). Circular pattern walls that symbolise the ancient war formation of ‘Chakravyuh’. The walls are claded with granite tablets. The `Tyag Chakra` holds the names of about 25,700 battle casualties which have been written on a 1.5 metre wall.

5. The main structure has been built in the form of four concentric circles, each chakra signifying different values of the armed forces ie Amar Chakra, Veerta Chakra (circle of bravery) is about 6 important battles of the army, air force and navy, Tyag Chakra, Rakshak Chakra (circle of protection) whose outermost tier is the `Suraksha Chakra`, comprising 695 trees depicting standing soldiers guarding.

6. Dedication Ceremony on February 25 2019. Unless otherwise stated the pictures are provided by Armed Forces Films and Photo Division. I have added pics of key war memorials so as to make this album comprehensive. This effort to present pics is a labour of love. In case of any errors they are unintentional, mail me edits.

7. View of AMAR CHAKRA (circle of Immortality). It comprises of a 15-metre tall obelisk. Walls behind pillars is Veerta Chakra (circle of bravery). It has details of important battles fought that you shall read about later.

8. At bottom of Amar Chakra this is written. Translated as ‘Every year celebrations will take place in the memories of the martyrs. Same will be the fate of every man who gives his life for the country’. Jai Hind - Bharat Mata ki Jai.

9. Dedication Ceremony during opening.

10. Happy Veterans. Front row orange cap is former Army Chief V P Malik. In turban is General J J Singh. Behind him is General D S Suhag.

11. Families of veterans who were invited for the Dedication Ceremony. Is this correct.

12. Entrance to the National War Memorial. The construction of the memorial used granite and sandstone that was sourced from Rajasthan.

13. View of TYAG CHAKRA WALL. The names of 25,942 war casualties have been inscribed on 16 walls of the National War Memorial. Backdrop is India Gate.

14. Individual granite tablet – one for each soldier who made the Supreme Sacrifice.

15. Evening view of the TYAG Chakra Wall.

16. The new `eternal flame` positioned at the bottom of the stone-made obelisk (left of pic). The existing eternal flame at the Amar Jawan Jyoti will continue to burn (right of pic).

17. Evening view AMAR CHAKRA. On the walls at end of pic are ‘Moments of Military Pride’ as you shall see from next pic.

18. ‘Moments of Military Pride’. They are Battle of Zoji-la 1948, Capture of Rajouri 1948, Capture of Hyderabad 1948, Liberation of Goa 1961 and Battle of Rezang La (Chushul) 1962.

19.“The Battle of Tithwal was one of the fiercest and longest battles fought during India - Pakistan conflict in 1947-48. During initial stages, Pashtun tribal militia had crossed the border and occupied strategically important village of Tithwal on Indian side which was fought over and claimed by both sides on a number of occasions. Attacker`s primary aim was to capture the Richhmar Gali located South of Tithwal and Nastachun Pass, East of Tithwal which was held by Indian Army. A massive attack was launched by Pakistan Army on 13 October 1948 hoping to capture the posts held by Indian troops but failed miserably with heavy casualties due to undaunting courage and valour displayed by Indian troops. The indomitable spirit and determination of Indian Army helped India in retaining the post of Tithwal. Soldiers of 6 RAJ RIF, Indian Army can be seen charging on the enemy in a hand to hand combat”.

20. “Battle of Rezangla was a pitched battle fought during India-China border conflict of 1962 at one of the highest mountainous battle fields at 18000 ft. Occupation of the mountain pass Rezangla in J&K`s Ladakh region by Chinese forces would have cut off the only road link of Chushul garrison to Leh. On 18 Nov 1962, Chinese troops launched a silent attack over Indian defences at Rezangla from two directions. As Indian troops were very vigilant, they inflicted heavy casualties on the attackers. Chinese forces launched multiple attacks and cut off all communication lines of Indian troops. Inspite of being completely isolated and outnumbered, soldiers of 13 KUMAON under the leadership of the company commander fought till last man last round. Troops of Indian Army displayed unparalleled courage and determination during the operation”. Pic by S Nayyar. For memorial pics Click Here

21. “The Battle of Gangasagar was one of the most fiercely fought battles in the then East Pakistan during India - Pakistan War of 1971. 14 GUARDS was given the task of capturing heavily fortified Pakistani military position in village Gangasagar. With meticulous planning, Indian troops commenced their offensive at 0200 hrs on 03 December 1971 and continued their advance towards the objective by clearing bunker after bunker against intense and close enemy shelling. Very close to the objective, Pakistani soldiers opened Medium Machine Gun fire from a two storey fortified building inflicting heavy casualties on Indian troops. This, however, did not deter the Indian soldiers who displayed unparalleled courage and determination during the operation and finally secured the objective after a pitched battle of two days. An impossible mission was accomplished and bravery of Indian soldiers was at its best display that turned the battle in their favour”.

22. “On the night of 04/05 Dec 1971, Indian Naval Ships Kiltan, Katchall, Nipat, Nirghat and Veer carried out their first missile attack over Karachi harbour. When Indian fleet reached 70 nautical miles South of Karachi around 10:30 PM, one of the officers on INS Nipat observed a blip on the radar indicating approaching enemy ship and fired a number of missiles to sink it. It was later identified as PNS Khaibar (Pakistani destroyer). On approaching harbour, INS Veer fired missiles on to PNS Muhafiz (Pakistan coastal minesweeper) to sink it along with its crew. In its maiden missile boat operation after independence, the Indian Navy destroyed four Pakistani ships and damaged another two. The Pakistani fuel reserves and harbour were also destroyed. In this fiercest battle, Indian Navy ships bombarded Karachi harbour with devastating fire power inflicting huge losses on to the adversary”.

23. “The Battle of Longewala was one of the major decisive battles fought on the Western sector during the India - Pakistan War of 1971. On the night of 04/05 Dec 1971, Pakistan forces comprising 4000 soldiers, T-59 & Sherman tanks, and a medium artillery battery attacked Longewala border post held by 23 PUNJAB. Inspite of being outnumbered, Indian soldiers gallantly held the post and requisitioned support of IAF. At the dawn of 5th Dec 1971, the Hunter aircraft based at Jaisalmer wreaked havoc on the Pakistani troops with their devastating fire power. The Hunters of 122 Squadron flew 18 sorties and destroyed 36 enemy tanks, 100 vehicles and killed 200 Pakistan soldiers in a very short span of time thwarting the advance of Pakistani army in its tracks.”

24. Battle of BASANTAR. It was one of the most vital battles fought during the 1971 war in the Western sector. Indian Army thwarted Pakistan plans to invade Shakargarh bulge by launching a counter offensive within 4 days of declaration of war and its formations were deployed on the outskirts of Sialkot town.

25. The Battle of Haji Pir was one of the most fiercely fought battles in 1971 war. Indian Army successfully executed large scale outflanking movement of forces to impede infiltration along the Uri-Haji Pir Pass. During the night long daring operations heavy casualties were inflicted on the enemy. Read How CRPF defeated Pakistan soldiers in 1965 at Kutch Click Here

26. “Operation Meghdoot 1984 is an operation along our North-Western border region in high altitude area of Siachen Glacier. The enemy post `Quaid-e-Azam` at an altitude of 21,153 ft with 1500 ft steep ice wall was so well positioned that it dominated the Indian posts all around. To capture this strategically located position, Indian Army launched its offensive on 23 June 1987. After three days and three nights of gruelling operation under the most difficult and adverse weather conditions with temperatures going down to minus 50 degrees C and intense snow blizzards, 8 JAK LI accomplished the mission on 26 June 1987. It is considered as a feat unparalleled in the history of high altitude warfare. Later, the post was named as `Bana Top` taking its name from one of the valiant soldiers who participated in this Operation”. Pic by S Nayyar.

27. Although this is not featured in the NWM I chose to add this because what Captain Vikram Batra and team achieved was phenomenal. He was awarded the Param Vir Chakra for his bravery. Pic by S Nayyar.

28. Having visited TIGER HILL that you see in centre of pic and is the highest point, you will realize how well the Indian Army fought to regain control. The Pakis were on top of the hill that overlooks Dras town. Pic by S Nayyar. Pics of Kargil War Memorial Click Here

29. Jawan on Eternal Vigil so that we the people of India can live in peace. Express gratitude to these brave sons of India. Pic 30 is about the Battle of Badgam. Read about Battle of Srinagar Click Here

30. War Memorial Rainket. It is named after Major Somnath Sharma who fought valiantly in The Battle of Badgam in 1947 in Kashmir Valley. Pic by S Nayyar. For memorial pics Click Here

31. Entrance Jaswant Garh War Memorial enroute to Tawang. The Battle of Nuranang was fought on 17/11/1962. The courage of these men changed the course of this battle, our weapons came alive again, we conclusively beat back the fourth Chinese by 11.40 am. The fifth Chinese attack came at 2.45 pm, was beaten back. The Chinese withdrew leaving over 300 dead. Garwhal Rifles losses were 2 dead and 8 wounded. Pic by S Nayyar. For memorial pics Click Here

32. Tank captured from the Pakis in the 1971 war displayed at the Longewal Memorial near Jaisalmer. Pic by S Nayyar. Click Here

33. Siachen War Memorial, the highest battle field in the world is Siachen. Pic by S Nayyar. For pics of Memorial, Base Camp & Glacier " Click Here

34. Param Yodha Sthal is where bronze busts of those who were awarded the Param Vir Chakra. “The Param Vir Chakra (PVC) is India`s highest military decoration, awarded for displaying distinguished acts of valour during wartime. On 26 January 1950, celebrated as Republic Day of India, the PVC was instituted as a Gallantry Medal with retrospective effect from 15 August 1947 by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the then President of India.The Medal translates as the "Wheel of the Ultimate Brave", and the award is granted for "most conspicuous bravery in the presence of the enemy". The medal was designed by Mrs. Savitri Khanolkar”.

35. Bronze bust are placed in a huge garden. “The row of trees in the Raksha Chakra is a reassurance to citizens of India about their safety against any threat, with each tree representing many soldiers who guard the territorial integrity of the Nation round the clock”. For pics of Memorial, Base Camp & Glacier " Click Here

36. Major Shaitan Singh was commanding a company of 13 Kumaon at Rezang La in Ladakh. On 18/11/1962 Chinese troops attacked his location with over whelming strength. He moved from one platoon to another boosting troop morale. Inspite of being grievously wounded he fought gallantly and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. He refused to be evacuated and kept fighting till the very end.

37. Rifleman Sanjay Kumar PVC, 13 Jammu and Kashmir Rifles. Operation Vijay 1999. eSamskriti thanks Lt Gen Satish Dua for getting pictures of the National War Memorial Delhi. Credits and copyright for pictures provided lie with the Armed Forces Films and Photo Division. To contribute to the Indian Army Relief Fund " Click Here

38. The next bust is of Naik Subedar Bana Singh. This board at, The Hall of Fame Leh, tells you about the battle to acquire ‘Quaid Post’. A 5 member team led by Bana Singhji approached the post from a difficult and different direction. After reaching the top he found there was a single Pakistani bunker. He lobbied a grenade on the bunker killing those inside. They got into a hand to hand combat. Post was captured on 26 June 1987. Pic by S Nayyar.

39. PVC Naik Subedar Bana Singh of 8 JnK LI. He volunteered a clear Quaid Post held by the Pakistani Army, at an altitude of 21,000 feet. Temperatures app -50C. Troops scaled a 457 metre high wall of ice from a treacherous approach with near zero visibility, reached the peak, destroyed enemy bunker with grenades.

40. Flying Officer N J S Sekhon, PVC (Posthumous). 18 Squadron IAF. India Pakistan War 1971. Captions taken from the National War Memorial site and media reports. Errors if any are all mine. Mail suggestions to Sanjeev at

41. Colours of the national flag on India Gate. National War Memorial Official Website

42. Front view Hall of Fame Museum Leh. Here get details of the major battles in the region from 1947 onwards. Also see equipment used by jawans in Siachen, role of Border Roads Organization and lots more. Pic by S Nayyar. For museum pics Click Here

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