Bhagavad Gita- Chapter 7 (Part-2) Jnaana Vijnaana Yogah- Yoga of Knowledge and Wisdom

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REASONS FOR ILLUSION

icchaadweshasamutthena dwandwamohena  bhaarata
    sarvabhootani sammoham sarge yaanti  parantapa // 7.27 //

By  the delusion of the pairs of opposites arising from desire and aversion, O  Bharata, all beings are subject to illusion right from birth, O Paranthapa  (Scorcherer of foes).

Every  individual, due to the instinct of self-preservation, has desire for things  that contribute to existence and aversion for things that obstruct the  attainment of such things desired. He suffers because of the conflict between  desires and aversion and his mind and intellect are pre-occupied with chasing  of objects desired as also running away from objects of aversion. This  agitation due to the pairs of opposites is that which veils the truth from  being grasped by an individual. In these circumstances no knowledge of the Self  can be possible.

Therefore  the only way we can discover our equipoise and tranquility as the eternal Self  is to strike at the root i.e. to control the agitations. All spiritual  practices in all religions are techniques - emotional, intellectual, and  physical - that bring about mental poise at least for a moment. Such a moment  of calmness is the moment of perfect mental illumination, fulfillment of re-union.

The  Lord says that all beings fall into this delusion right at their very birth. To  get out of this delusion and to gain right knowledge is the goal of life and the  Gita provides such knowledge to the erring souls guiding them to come out of  confusions and reach Perfection.

THE FORTUNATE SOULS

yeshaam twantagatam paapam janaanaam  punyakarmanaam
    te dwandwamohanirmuktaa bhajante maam  dridhavrataah // 7.28 //

But  those men of virtuous deeds whose sins have come to an end, who are freed from  the delusion of the pairs of opposites, worship Me with firm resolve.

The  word `sin' means an error of judgment in man which veils the Self from him.  When the sins are renounced, when the ignorance is overcome, our life is spent  in the service of the Lord, the One in all. In the process, devotion deepens  and knowledge of God increases until it reaches the vision of the One Self  everywhere.  They are said to be free  from delusion in the form of pairs of opposites who do not lose their balance  of mind either in joy or sorrow. That is the life eternal, release from the  cycle of birth and death.

jaraamaranamokshaaya maamaashritya  yatanti ye
    te brahma tadviduh kritsnamadhyaatmam  karma chaakhilam // 7.29 //

Those  who strive for deliverance from old age and death, taking refuge in Me, realize  in full the Brahman - the whole knowledge of the Self and all about action as  well.

Those  who aim for purifying themselves from all negative tendencies for contemplating  on the Self do so to gain the freedom from old age and death. This, however,  does not mean physical continuity of existence in the world. Birth, growth,  disease, decay and death are necessary modifications for all living creatures  on the earth. What is implied here is that a spiritual seeker in his meditation  on the Self is to get over all his identifications with change which is  indicated by the terms `old age and death.'

Such  a meditator, concentrating on the Self, realizes his oneness with the  Consciousness Principle or the Self in him. To realize the Self is to become  Brahman since Self in the individual is the One Self everywhere. This  non-duality of the Truth is implied in the statement that those who meditate  upon Me, the Self, come to know the Brahman.

A  man of realization need not lead a life away from the society in which he  lives. The Perfected One not only realizes the All-Pervading Self but  comprehends the working of the psychological forces (Adhyatma) in him  and becomes proficient in all activities (Karma). He becomes a well-integrated  personality, dynamic and efficient in all activities, understanding the  innermost Self.

saadhibhootaadhidaivam maam saadhiyajnam  cha ye viduh
    prayaanakaale'pi  cha maam te viduryuktachetasah  // 7.30  //

Those  who know Me 1. As the one that underlies all the elements (adhi bhootam) 2. As  the One that underlies all the gods (adhi daivam) and 3. As the One that  sustains all the sacrifices (adhi yajnam), will with steadfast mind, know Me  even in the hour of death.

The  man of perfection is he who is steadfast in mind, who has taken refuge in Him,  who knows Him. We are not asked to remember at the time of death certain  speculative doctrines, but to know Him in all aspects viz as that which  underlies all elements, gods and sacrifices and trust Him and worship Him.

The  terms used here mean that the Supreme is to be known not only in itself but also  in its manifestations in nature, in objective and subjective phenomena, in the  principle of works and sacrifice. The teacher explains all these terms in the  next Chapter. In this connection a reference may also be made to Verses 7, 12  and 19 of this Chapter.

om  tat sat iti srimadbhagavadgeetaasu upanishatsu brahma vidyaayaam yogashaastre  sri krishnaarjuna samvaade jnaana vijnaana yogo naama saptamo'dhyaayah

Thus  in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita, the science of the Eternal,  the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna, ends the  seventh discourse entitled  The Yoga of Knowledge and Wisdom  

Concepts and Issues
The  sincere seekers strive to break the limitations of the Matter and try to reach  the spirit. Such virtuous people who take refuge in Him can be classified into  four categories as under: 
•Those who are in distress and suffering in the world - Aarta 
•The lovers of knowledge of the Spirit - Jignyasu 
•The seekers of worldly riches - Arthaarthi and 
•The men of wisdom seeking the Spirit - Gnyani

Among  these the man of wisdom whose devotion to The Lord is single-minded is the  dearest to Him. This does not mean the other three types are condemned by Him.  All the devotees are noble but the wise who has shed his ego reach Him quicker.  But even these wise realize the Supreme only after a long journey of several  births and deaths. Such one is very difficult to find in the world. For an  average man of the world, desire is the driving force for all his activities.  To fulfill his desires he worships as many deities as his desires.  He wastes his time in getting his desires  satisfied and obtains in return only perishable material rewards. But if the  seeker's sole goal is to realize the Self he directs all his energies towards  that end till he becomes one with the Pure Atman.

Sri  Krishna tells Arjuna that He knows about all beings - their past, present or future-  but none knows Him. By the delusion of the pairs of opposites, Raga (attraction) and Dwesha (repulsion) pleasure and pain etc. born out of  desire and hatred all beings come under the spell of Maya. They forget the  presence of The Lord and suffer due to the cycle of birth and death. Those who  fully surrender to Him come to know His Integral Being i.e. Brahman, Adhiyajna,  Adhyatma, Karma, Adhibuta and Adhidaiva.   These terms are dealt with in the next Chapter.

A  human being who fails to know and remember Him through out his life will not  remember Him even at the time of death. If he repeats the name of The Lord or  thinks about the Divine Personality at the time of death, even then he will  reach the Supreme Imperishable. But unless one remembers The Lord through out  one's life, one will find it difficult to remember Him at the time of death.

Live as the Gita Teaches You to Live
  The  Supreme Consciousness can be invoked through any means according to one's  temperament and one can merge in and attain Supreme Happiness. Those who  understand that sufferings arise because of the cycles of birth and death and realize  that the Self is the Supreme Goal and culmination of all human pursuits and act  with faith and wisdom attain Him. Such people do not have re-birth.

Points to Ponder
  Describe  the four types of worshipers. Who among them is dear to The Lord and why?
  What  is Maya? What is that by which people are subjected to this Maya?
  How  one can cross over the Maya and attain Self-Realization?

Next time we will take up Chapter 8
    Harih Om

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