Intrinsic Property, Quantum vacuum and Shunyata

  • In this paper an attempt has been made to critically analyze the claims of convergence between the important concepts of quantum theory and concepts of Buddhist philosophy. The limited knowledge of the present author on various schools of thought of Buddhist philosophy restricts the present discussions within the domain of Madhyamaika and Yogacara school of Buddhism.                                                  

"Physical concepts are free creations of human mind, and are      not, however it may seem, uniquely determined by the external world." Albert Einstein


Over the last few decades, following the revolutionary scientific contributions to the theory of Einstein's relativity and quantum physics  many scholars have been inspired to discover striking parallels between world views of Vedanta and modern physics. Few attempts have been made towards the comparative study of various branches of science, studying parallels between modern physics, especially, between quantum theory, cosmology and Buddhist concepts.

In the present paper, our aim is not to discover the findings of modern physics in Buddhist framework or in Vedanta or to show how modern physics can also be claimed as “spiritual”. On the contrary, an attempt has been made to critically analyze the claims of convergence between the important concepts of quantum theory and concepts of Buddhist philosophy. The limited knowledge of the present author on various schools of thought of Buddhist philosophy restricts the present discussions within the domain of Madhyamaika and Yogacara school of Buddhism.

I. Introduction

The question of the origin and constitution of the universe lies at centre of most ancient natural philosophies: how did the world come into existence?  Was it created from a sort of nothingness or does it originate from a basic substance or principle that still underlies its existence?  In early twentieth century Albert Einstein discussed about the origin and structure of the universe in a comprehensive manner within his framework of General Theory of Relativity.

According to the recent formulation of cosmology (i.e. the origin and structure of the universe), the universe originates from the fluctuations of the Quantum Vacuum. Vacuum in Modern Physics is not exactly nothing, but rather a “something called nothing”, meaning that it is replete with activities governed by the principle of quantum theory.

From philosophical perspective what is significant is the division of creative conceptions into those which assume that the Universe arose from "nothingness" in the strong ontological meaning of the word vs. those which lead to the conclusion that it was originated from a certain "poorer" physical reality, usually called "quantum vacuum" or space-time endowed with fluctuation. This vacuum or ontologically speaking a substratum exists which is devoid of any matter but full of activities or full of potentialities. It has striking similarity with the concept of Tathagatagarbha in Yogacara Buddhism. 

Scientists are yet to understand how the behaviors and attributes of all the entities in this physical universe are being originated from these potentialities inherent to quantum vacuum: for example, how, the elementary entities like electron, protons, quarks etc get their specific properties like mass, charge, spin, interaction character etc and make atoms, molecules etc?

In modern physics the properties like charge, spin etc. of elementary entities like electron, proton, photon etc are considered to be “intrinsic properties” of the entity. This leads to new debate whether “these intrinsic properties” are really intrinsic since they are created out of the fluctuation of vacuum. In Buddhist philosophy especially in “madhyamik philosophy” no such concept of “intrinsic property” or svabhava exists at the ultimate level. 

Here, I shall elaborate this issue of lack of existence of intrinsic attributes for elementary entities in quantum vacuum and compare with Nagarjun Philosophy of emptiness or Shūnyatā. 

It is worth mentioning that in the process of understanding the characteristics of quantum vacuum one needs to understand the quantum theory along with special theory of relativity. Special theory of relativity is based on two axioms one of which is the speed of light taken as constant and maximum. This constancy of speed of light does not depend on other external conditions.

This is in contrast to the doctrine of “pratitya samudpada” or “dependent origination” in Buddhist philosophy. The existence of multi-verse can explain the contingency of speed of light i.e. in our present universe the speed of light is constant and has the fixed numerical value which might be different in other universe. The basic issue is whether Buddhism permits the existence of multi-verse or not.

This substratum  or “Quantum vacuum” is not devoid of anything but full of some attributes which give rise to the physical characteristics of various fields like gravitational, electromagnetic etc present in the physical universe(1). The challenge is to understand how these physical characteristics of various fields emerges from the seeds or attributes embedded in the substratum.  Conceptually, the term “Quantum Vacuum” in modern cosmology refers to the same reality as depicted by the term “Tathagata Garbha” in Yogacara Buddhism (2) where an ubiquitous physical substratum and its fluctuations gives rise to the physical universe. This will be discussed in section 


In modern physics matter is supposed to be composed of molecules, atoms, electron, proton etc. If we further down to the scale i.e. to smaller scale of length and time, all the elementary particle like electron, proton, neutron are supposed to be composed of particle called “quarks”. The behavior of elementary entities like electron, proton, neutron, photon etc is governed by a equation known as Schrodinger equation whereas the object of everyday experience like a stone, basketball etc are governed by a equation known as Newtonian equation. It is to be noted that the  properties of these elementary entities like mass, charge, spin of   electron , proton etc are considered to be intrinsic in nature.  Intrinsic properties are those properties that a thing have, irrespective of whether or not there are other contingent things. Moreover, the spin can take discrete values. This has been verified in early twentieth century laboratory experiment.

It raises serious philosophical debate especially if one considers Madhyamiaka school of Buddhism. In Buddhist philosophy especially in “madhyamik philosophy” no such concept of “intrinsic property” or svabhava exists in contrast to Vedantic view, where the “operational self” (ahamkāra) is underpinned by the “ontological self” (jiivātman), which denotes the intrinsic identity. I will discuss this aspect in section III.

It is worth mentioning that various fields exist in this universe- for example gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong field. It is the dream of scientists (rather dream of Einstein) to find a theory which unifies all type of fields and hence theory of everything may be constructed. To construct theory of quantum field one needs to consider simultaneously the quantum theory and relativity theory. In special theory of relativity Einstein started with two axioms: the speed of light is constant and maximum and the space is homogeneous and isotropic. The first axiom is based on the experimental observations and so far no experimental observations contradict this assumption. So the contingency of speed of light i.e. the constancy of speed of light does not depend on any other conditions in the present universe.

It raises serious philosophical debate within madhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy. The contingency of speed of light can be envisaged if and when one considers existence of multi-verse theory. This will be discussed in section IV. Concept of Nonlocality plays an important role in modern day quantum theory. The concept of interconnectedness in Buddhist philosophy and the nonlocal connection or correlations are critically discussed in section V.  Finally the concept of quantum reality and sunyata are discussed in view of creating possible dialogue in section VI.


II. Tathagata Garbha, Quantum Vacuum and Ontological issues

The concept of alayvijnana plays a central role in the development of Buddhist dialectical thought. Nagarjuna is considered to be the first Buddhist thinker to introduce a dialectical system as a means of developing progressive philosophical views. However, he never mentioned the term alayvijnana. Asanga, the propunder of the Vijnanavada doctrine, wrote the first systemized theory of causation by the ideation storehouse” or alayvijnana.

It is not clear from the text whether the storehouse consciousness should be considered as a universal source of individual consciousness or as a pluralistic principle per se performing at the bottom of each individual human mind. The text of Asanga considers aalya as the seat of pure subjectivity, out of which objectivity develops. However, the text does not imply any sort of   ultimateness in the storehouse consciousness as such. Vasubandhu, brother of Asanga adhered to the doctrine as the basis of subjective consciousness and the source of all phenomenal multiplicity. In Lankavatara sutra aalay is compared with infinite ocean (Verdu) on whose surface waves roll on permanently aroused by the winds of ignorance but the depth remain unmoved that is the aalay body itself “subsists uninterruptley, quite free from  fault of impermanence….  and thoroughly pure in its essential nature”.  Later development towards more ontological formulation, the sutra identifies the concept of aalay with the concept of Tathagatagarbha, the matrix or womb. The latter one is the most cherished Kegonian expressions which designates the ultimate reality of Buddha nature itself or tathata or suchness.

In 1974 Verdu (3) in his book on “Dialectical aspects in Buddhist thought” raise an important issue which is much relevant in the context of modern science. He wrote “The Lanka, however, leaves a vital aspect of its doctrine shrouded in deep mystery. This is the question concerning the character and origin of the agency that stirs the waves of change upon the ocean of the garbha. This agency is metaphorically designated as the winds of ignorance. What principle are these winds related to?  What is the ontological status of this principle as primordial stimulator of the growth within the womb (garbha) of the aalay? Is it extrinsic to the garbha or is it internal to the garbha, in which case it is the very source of error and of its subsequent evils?” Now if it is considered to be external to garbha then the concept of garbha can not be treated as ultimate one.


There exists striking similarity to the idea of creation of the universe by the fluctuations of quantum vacuum in modern cosmology and the concept of tathagata garbha. In modern cosmology, the quantum principle is considered as the fundamental principle existing at all levels ubiquitously. So the issue is whether this quantum principle is extrinsic to the quantum vacuum?  The answer is no. The very concept of quantum vacuum is intimately related to this uncertainty principle. Indeed it is intrinsic to the quantum vacuum.

Let us now look into the solution of the enigma raised in the context of Tathagatagarbha by Yogacara Buddhists.  A highly speculative scripture Mahayanasraddotpada (Awakening of faith in Mahayana) usually attributed to Asvaghosa offered an interesting solution to this enigma. Briefly speaking, Tathagatagarbha is considered as the universal flux or storehouse of all reality including both its samsara and nirvana aspects whereas aalayavijnana is considered as the storehouse of all knowledge. Phenoenologically if the enlightenment is the noetic aspect of the aalay, the tathagatagarbha is its ontic aspect. Edward Thomas (6) stated “It becomes superfluous to ask whether this mind or store-consciousness(aalay) is universal or individual. It is conceived as the one reality beyond all differentiation…….This is Tathagatagarbha ….. in which all reality and difference is embraced”.        

According to modern cosmology the universe arises in the process of “fluctuation of quantum vacuum”, not out of “nothing” but out of a certain physical reality. This vacuum or ontologically speaking about the existence of substratum exists devoid of any matter but full of activities or full of potentialities. These potentialities give rise to various attributes of the physical universe. For example, there exists four fundamental forces in physical universe – namely, the electromagnetic force, gravitational force, strong nuclear force and weak force. These fundamental forces are associated with corresponding fields – like electromagnetic, gravitational fields etc. each field has its own distinct characteristics. These characteristics are supposed to have some kind of imprints or seeds in “quantum vacuum” (via symmetry breaking). So these characteristics or attributes arise out of the fluctuation of the “quantum vacuum” with potentialities. 

Here, the scientists are yet to find the answer to the question of how the attributes of the physical universe arise out of “fluctuation of quantum vacuum with some seeds or potentialities” or a space-time endowed with fluctuation without having specific “attributes” of the various fields.

It is worth mentioning that though several concepts of vacuum like “true vacuum”, “false vacuum” are proposed in modern cosmology, yet none of them is “nothingness” in the strict ontological sense of the word. In the context of these theses on the creation of the universe out of “nothingness”, “tunneling out of nothingness” or “fluctuation of nothingness” are not purely scientific theses. Now even if one does not consider the concept of energy, mass, stress tensor as characteristics of nothingness but that of space-time (which we call dynamic geometry), then one should recognize the existence of a law of nature at the “very beginning” according to which “nothingness creates the world”. 

Clearly, such a law would appear to go beyond any known physical laws, and presumably it is subject to causal laws that invoke some world of logic and mathematics, because we believe (almost religiously!) that an explanation of the origin of the universe cannot do without assumption of structure of rationality. This entails that, in understanding the question of the “beginning of universe” the involvement of philosophy is inevitable in the following sense. 

Cosmology as an empirical science is predicated based on the structure and evolution of only a small observable part of the universe (like correctness of inflation), but not the universe as a whole – for example, we are not able to check the correctness of a rule for initial conditions from a scientific point of view. It is to be noted that extrapolations of local physics onto the whole observable Universe cannot do without cosmological principles, about which what we know is basically of a philosophical character. It immediately raises the pertinent question “Is the emptiness of quantum vacuum similar to the emptiness of Buddhist philosophy?” 


III. Intrinsic Property in Quantum Theory and Dependent origination


Nagarjuna is considered to be the first Buddhist thinker and propounder of   dialectical system as a means of developing progressive philosophical views. Nagarjuna’s philosophy consists principally of two aspects: 

(1) Exposition of a concept of reality [sunyata]  according to which fundamental reality does not consist of independent, substantial components i.e absence of  “svabhava”  in contrary to other Indian traditions. 

(2) The second aspect is an answer to the inner contradictions of four extreme concepts of reality (catuskoti, meaning ‘four corners’).

It insists that there are four possibilities regarding any statement: it might be true (and true only), false (and false only), both true and false, or neither true nor false. Nagarjuna introduced the concept of Pratityasamutpada which has two parts in Sanskrit: Pratitya and Samutpada where Pratitya: a continuative meaning “having dependent”; Samutpada: an action noun meaning “arising”.

Pratityasamutpada refers not just the things which arise from causes but also to non products since their existence is relative.  According to this doctrine, all phenomena are dependent arising. Since everything is interdependent, nothing can be self-defining and exist inherently. The notion of interdependence leads us directly to the idea of emptiness in Buddhism, which does not mean nothingness, but the absence of inherent existence. Intrinsic are those qualitative properties that a thing has irrespective of whether or not there are other contingent things, all other qualitative properties are extrinsic or relational.

According to western perspective, the world consists of independent individual things that are embedded in space-time. These things are individuals because

  • They have a spatio-temporar location
  • They are a subject of the predication of properties each and
  • There are some qualitative properties by means of which each of these things is distinguished from all others (at least the spatio-temporal location is such a property).


In modern physics the properties, for example, charge, spin etc. of elementary entities like electron, proton, photon etc are considered to be “intrinsic properties” of the entity. Elementary particles like electron, proton, photon etc. are described by –

  • Electrons has definite mass, charge and spin
  • It belongs to a category called Fermions 
  • Fermions have spin ½, 3/2. 5/2 etc. 
  • Photon belong to a category called Boson, Bosons have spin 0,1,2 etc.
  • Boson obeys Bose statistics and hence known as Boson.
  • Recent mass of electron: 9.10938215(45)×10−31  Kg 
  • Charge of an electron: 4.80320451(10)×10−10 esu
  • Spin of an electron:  ½ 


Scientists discovered many such elementary particles out of which the particles called “leptons” (like electron, muon) and “quarks” are considered to be the building blocks of all other particles and matter. It means matter and all other elementary particles like neutron, proton, mesons are composed of leptons and quarks. These “quarks” possess also intrinsic properties like spin, charge etc.  However, if we carefully analyze the situation, these “intrinsic properties” no longer can be identified as “intrinsic property”. This can visualized in the following way:

In a phenomena called pair-creation in modern physics it has been shown from observations that a pair of electron ( negative charge, fixed mass and definite spin) and positron ( opposite charge that of electron but same mass as that of electron and same spin) is created out of the fluctuation of vacuum or gamma ray ( quanta of light) which may also create such a pair.  Here, when it is created from gamma ray ( which does not have charge, rest mass but has spin one ), how the attribute like spin of electron and positron ( spin half) is created from a spin one gamma or photon quanta ( which has spin one only) or the charge of electron and positron arises from chargeless gamma ? In physics we consider the law of conservation of charge or angular momentum. Ontologically it gives rise to the problem of understanding the intrinsic property of elementary entities at the level of quantum vacuum.  Further analysis is needed to clarify the present situation.


IV. Special Theory of Relativity, Constancy of Speed of light and Contingency

Since the perception of quantum theory, the debates started regarding the ontological issues presen in quantum theory. According to Copenhagen interpretation one cannot say anything about the reality unless one observes it. Essentially no observer independent reality exists in this framework and hence it is epistemic in nature. During the process of development of quantum theory, the field like electromagnetic field has been shown to be quantized. Once we have quantized field we do not have concept of particle as such in the framework but the quanta of this field is nothing but the photon associated to electromagnetic field. The enigma of wave and particle was resolved within the framework of quantum field theory.

This is one of the most successful theories in terms of experimental observations in the domain of modern physics. Here, one needs to construct a framework of quantum theory along with special theory of relativity. The fields have infinite degrees of freedom and have more intuitive ontological understanding. Einstein introduced two axioms I formulating the special theory of relativity: one the speed of light is constant and maximum. This is based on observational findings. Many laboratory experiments as well as experiments performed in the space have been performed to measure the speed of light. No results violate this axiom so far.

The speed of light has a definite numerical value (3x1010cm/s) which can be measured in the experiment as a consequence. It gives rise to new philosophical debate: why this particular value is prevalent in our present universe? Can we think in terms of contingency (contingency means dependent on other conditions)? One possible solution has been proposed by Peter Mittlestaedt (7) regarding the contingency of speed of light. He suggested that if we take the principle of quantum theory as the most fundamental principle in nature then there is a finite probability of having this particular value in our universe. Its value may be different in other universe. So his solution demands the existence of multiple universe. Intuitively speaking, one can think of an ocean where bubbles are being created and dissolved. These bubbles are nothing but many universes. This ocean is nothing but the quantum vacuum where fluctuations give rise to many universes or bubbles.

Now, the issue is whether any school of Buddhism propounds the manifestation of many physical universes from sunyata.

V. Concept of Non-locality and idea of Interconnectedness in Madhyamika Philosophy

Buddhists see the world, not as a collection of isolated objects, but as a network of phenomena that are fundamentally interconnected and interdependent. The Buddhist worldview, therefore, is holistic because it sees the world as an integrated whole rather than as a dissociated collection of parts. It recognizes the fundamental inter-dependence of all phenomena in the world and everything is dependent.

Now, let us look into phenomena called quantum entanglement and nonlocality in quantum theory. Quantum entanglement, also known as quantum non-local connection is a property of quantum mechanical systems. This connection contains two or more objects which are linked in such a way that it is not possible to describe the quantum state of a constituent of that system without fully mentioning its counterparts, even if those individual parts are spatially separated.  Erwin Schrodinger (8) coined the term “entanglement” for this phenomena and used it in his three part article published in Proceedings of Cambridge Philosophical Society. He proposed that entanglement arises due to the interactions of two particles (i.e., two quantum objects) through the evolution of wave equation (popularly known as Schrodinger equation) and called this phenomenon as the characteristic trait of quantum theory. Schrodinger, also, realized that this character, rather peculiar non-classical correlations to quantum systems, could be used to steer a distant particle into one of a set of systems having a certain probability. 

But, Einstein disliked this approach at first and called quantum entanglement “spooky action at a distance” in the famous EPR debate.  In 1982(9) Aspect et al. first showed that nonlocal interactions do exist and occur even in the laboratory.  

Two quantum objects, when entangled, initially, both will have an undetermined state. When one object’s state is determined, the other’s state is instantaneously known to be the opposite, no matter how far apart they are. Quantum theory permits that the states of quantum systems are entangled. Instead of speaking of entangled states, one can also talk directly in terms of entangled systems. However, since entanglement is state-dependent, it seems more appropriate to use the notion of entangled states.  Examples for this phenomenon are position and momentum and also spin angular momentum in any direction. Instead, there are only correlations between the state-dependent properties of the quantum systems in question, encoded in a joint probability distribution determined by the joint state. Quantum theory does not include any property of a quantum system taken separately which is a supervenience basis for these correlated probability distributions. Furthermore, these correlations – and thus entanglement – are independent of spatio-temporal distance. Because of this property, i.e., entanglement, quantum physics seems to exhibit some sort of a holism. 

Next, let us summarize the concept of nonlocaltiy in the following manner:

The states of two or more systems are non-separable if and only if it is the joint state of the whole that completely determines the state-dependent properties of each system and the correlations among these systems (to the extent that these are determined at all).

According to Ithaca interpretation of Quantum Theory (QT), The only proper subjects of physics are correlations among different parts of the physical world.                Correlations are fundamental, irreducible, and objective. They constitute the full content of physical reality. There is no absolute state of being; there are only correlations between subsystems.

So the correlation or interdependence is fundamental in understanding quantum reality. It seems to have striking similarity with the concept of interdependence in Madhyamika’s view. But it does not preclude the existence of intrinsic property of the quantum entity. Moreover, the correlations for quantum entities in quantum entanglement have to be constructed by certain measurement process. Of course, once the correlations occur it will be there whatever the distance the entities are separated. Again, any entity in quantum world is not connected with any other entity i.e. Electron may be correlated with another but not with other particle like Neutron. However, further investigation is needed to understand this situation of correlations in quantum world and the interdependence in Madhyamika philosophy.


VI. Quantum Reality and Sunyata:  possible dialogue

In physics, the scientists generally follow the “top-down” approach. Since the dawn of civilization, curious minds are engaged in looking into stars, galaxies in the sky. Kepler discovered the law of planetary systems i.e. how the planets are moving around the sun. Newton formulated the laws of gravitation i.e. why the apples fall towards the earth. Their efforts were mainly concentrated in understanding the behavior of large objects like planets, everyday objects like falling of apples.

The developments of research in the beginning of twentieth century changed the paradigm. Scientists tried to understand the behavior of smaller and smaller objects like  “atom” as the smallest unit of the matter and went o further down to find the fundamental particles like  “electron”, “proton” etc. These are the entities which constitute the microscopic world. So the journey is from macroscopic ( for larger objects) to microscopic world. The behavior of the entities of the microscopic world is governed by different law of nature called Schrodinger equation where as the law govern the behavior of macroscopic objects by Newtonian equation. It does not mean that the discovery of quantum paradigm refutes Newtonian paradigm. We need to understand different levels of reality- at one level Newtonian paradigm are applicable where as at another level of reality quantum law is applicable. One may argue that as the quantum law which governs the behavior of microscopic entities, the behavior of the whole universe should be described by the law of microscopic world. This is far from understanding of the scientists even in twenty first century. 

The developments of modern physics in twentieth century raise epistemological and ontological issues which may be relevant in Buddhist framework. They can be summarized in the following manner.

  • Issue of Intrinsic property of the objects in Quantum Theory and Madhyamika Philosophy.
  • Issue of Interconnectedness and concept of nonlocality and quantum entanglement in the microscopic world.
  • Concept of quantum vacuum – as ultimate reality and Tathagatagarbha in Yogacara Buddhism.

Great Buddhist scholar Nagarjuna in his famous text Mūlamadhyamakakārikā attributes two truths to Buddha “the Dharma taught by the buddhas is precisely based on the two truths: a truth of mundane conventions and a truth of the ultimate”.  

The doctrine of two truths lies in the core of Buddhist philosophy. One is conventional truth which involves our everyday experience and understanding the way the phenomenal world appears and functions. According to Buddhism this conventional truth is deceptive and this deception is called inherent existence and is identified as the root cause of sufferings. Madhyakima school of Buddhism asserts that no independent phenomena exist. Phenomena are neither self-created nor self-enduring but arise in dependence on other conditions without a nature or essence of their own. For example, if the atoms producing an object say pitcher are discrete entities as Buddhist maintain, then simply the aggregates of the atoms will not produce pitcher.

In modern science one needs concept of cohesion to produce such an object. Jaina scholars emphasized that the atoms are being capable of being connected to become as concrete object. This is strikingly similar to the discovery of Pauli’s exclusive principle which solves the mystery of periodic table of various elements in nature. Hydrogen and Oxygen combine to produce water. Hydrogen and Oxygen are independent entities – the combination occurs due to their propensity to each other based on above mentioned exclusion principle. 

In modern science, scientists are looking for fundamental entities or fields by which the whole universe can be described. Again the fluctuation of a substratum called quantum vacuum has been studied to understand the origin of this physical or phenomenal universe. The various attributes of the microscopic entities like spin, charge, and mass are considered as intrinsic properties at certain level but they are considered as merely potentialities at the level of quantum vacuum. This is one of the challenging issues in modern cosmology how these attributes arise out of vacuum fluctuation where “so called intrinsic property” does not exist. 

So we do have the concept of two truths in modern science too similar to Madhyamika school of thought. Recently, physicists constructed “quantum ontology” by relaxing some of the axioms of classical ontology from very general perspective. Within this new perspective, further analysis is needed in finding the convergence and divergence in modern physics and sunyata or emptiness in Buddhism.            

Author is at the National Institute of Advanced Studies, IISC Campus, Bangalore and (Former) Professor, Physics and Applied mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical   Institute, Kolkata.

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This article was first published here. eSamskriti has obtained permission from the author to share here.


1. Jonathan Duquette (2010); Towards a Philosophical Reconstruction of the Dialogue between Modern Physics and Advaita Ved nta: An Inquiry into the Concepts of   k , Vacuum and Reality:, Ph.D. Dissertations, University of Montreal.

2. Sisir Roy (2015) Towards reconstruction of the dialogue between Modern Physics and                 Buddhist Philosophy: an inquiry into the concepts of Quantum Vacuum and Ālayavijñāna, Nava Nalanda University, Bihar.

3. Sisir Roy (2015) An inquiry into the concept of Quantum Vacuum in Modern Physics and Akasha in Advaita Vedanta; Prajnanam – self awareness, Kaivalyadham, pp.36-56.

4. Brain Edward Brown (2010); The Buddha Nature: A study of the Tathagarbha and Alayavijnana : Motilal Banarasi Das Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi

5. Alfonso Verdu (1974) Dialectical Aspects in Buddhist Thought; International Studies, East Asian Series Research Publication, Number Eight, The University of Kansas.

6. Edward Thomas (1963) The History of Buddhist Thought, London, p. 234.

7. Peter Mittelestaedt (2011) Rational Reconstruction of Modern Physics, Springer.

8. Erwin Schrodinger (1935):  Discussion of Probability Relations Between Separated Systems, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Vol. 31,  p 555-563; ibid .Vol. 32 (1936) p 446-451.

9. A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Roger(1982) Experimental Realizations of Einstein-pdolsky-Rosen-Bohm Gedanken experiment: A New violation of Bell’s inequalities., Physical Review Letters, Vol. 49(2), p91-94.


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