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  • BGita- Chap 13 (Pt-2) Kshetra Kshetrajna Vibhaaga Yogah- Yoga of Distinction between The Field and the Knower of the Field

BGita- Chap 13 (Pt-2) Kshetra Kshetrajna Vibhaaga Yogah- Yoga of Distinction between The Field and the Knower of the Field


purushah prakritistho hi bhungte prakritijaan gunaan
    kaaranam gunasango'sya sadasadyoni janmasu // 13.22  //

Purusha seated in Prakriti,  experiences the qualities (gunas) born of Prakriti. It is attachment to these  qualities is the cause of His birth in good and evil wombs.

Purusha seated in Prakriti: When  the knower of the Field (Purusha) identifies himself with the Field (Prakriti),  he becomes the experiencer.

He experiences the qualities born  of Prakriti: Purusha identifies with the body and the senses which are the  effects of Prakriti (Matter). Pleasure and pain, heat and cold etc. arise out  of Matter envelopments. The experiences of Matter become the experiences of the  Spirit because of the latter's contact with the former. Purusha not only  experiences the sorrows and joys of life but develops attachment with them  which is the cause of its birth in good or evil wombs.

Having identified with the Field  (World of objects), the knower of the Field (Purusha) develops attachment to  the Field, the delusory samsar and finds himself as though he has  forgotten his real nature. Thus this ignorance (Avidya) and attachment  to the Field are the two causes due to which the Satchidananda has  become a miserable Samsarin. The re-discovery of the Self and realizing  our real nature would therefore be through detachment from the Field. Vairagya and Viveka are the means for such rediscovery.

Avidya or ignorance and kama or attachment to the gunas, together constitute the cause of samsara or relative existence. The aspirant seeking liberation, should avoid them both. Ignorance is to be removed by knowledge, the knowledge of the  Field and the Knower of the Field as imparted in the beginning of this Chapter. Attachment is to be destroyed by vairagya or dispassion. The  injunction delivered in the Gita is to renounce the illusory world.


upadrashtaanumantaa cha bhartaa bhoktaa maheshwarah
    paramaatmeti chaapyukto dehe'smin purushah parah // 13.23 //

The Supreme Purusha in this  body is also called the Witness, the Approver, the Supporter, the Experiencer,  the Sovereign Lord and the Supreme Self.

As a contrast to the deluded  knower of the Field, Purusha, discussed in the previous Verse, there must be the  Pure Spirit or unconditioned Purusha also.  Hence there must be knowledge which is not  conditioned by the field although it may look conditioned. Sri Krishna thus  mentions here two Purushas viz. the Lower one and the Higher one. The Lower  Purusha is the knower of the Field and the Higher one is Pure Consciousness  unconditioned by the Prakriti. Both of these function in this body.

The Supreme Self, Pure  Consciousness, is described as Spectator, a silent witness, upadrashtaa, when it sees evil actions performed. When noble actions take place it is  referred to as the Approver, anumantha. When noble actions are done in a  spirit of surrender to the Lord, the Supreme is referred to as bharta,  the fulfiller. The individual in his Eternal Conscious state initiates all  actions and reaps the fruit. Therefore, He is referred to as the Experiencer, bhokta.

Finally it is stated that the  Higher Self, paramaatma, the Sovereign Lord, maheshwarah, is  in this body itself.

This theme will be again  discussed in Chapter 15.17.


ya evam vetti purusham prakritim cha gunaih saha
    sarvathaa vartamano’pi na sa  bhooyobhijaayate // 13.24 //

He who thus knows the Purusha  and Prakriti along with the gunas is not born again, in whatsoever condition he  may be.

He who has realized in himself

•that which is the matter, prakriti
•that which is the Spirit, purusha, and who understands
•how the Supreme Spirit gets identified with matter and behaves as Purusha, the knower of the Field
•as also the mysteries of the Gunas under the influence of which the body equipments function is the one called `Man of Wisdom'. Such a person frees himself from the cycle of births and deaths whatever may be his conduct.


dhyaanenaatmani pashyanti kechidaatmaanamaatmanaa
    anye saankhyena yogena karmayogena chaapare // 13.25 //

Some by meditation behold the  Self in the Self by the Self, others by the path of knowledge (Jnaana Yoga) and  still others by Karma Yoga or path of works.

Realization of the Self is the  goal of the spiritual seeking and many paths are prescribed for the purpose  keeping in view the differences in the mental and intellectual capabilities of  the seekers.

By meditation some behold the Self:  Meditation is defined as withdrawing the hearing, seeing, and the functioning  of the other senses into the mind away from   sound, form and other sense objects; next withdrawing the mind into the  inmost Intelligence; and then contemplating the Intelligence with undeviating  concentration. Meditation is continuous thinking and the mind of one absorbed  in it dwells on the ideal uninterruptedly.

Through meditation the seeker  directs his flow of thought of the Self in a continuous and unbroken manner  like an unbroken stream of flowing oil when pouring from one vessel to another.  Through concentration the senses are withdrawn into the mind and are not  allowed to run after their respective sensual objects. Keeping it thus under  control, the mind itself is made to abide in the Self through constant  meditation on the Self.

The mind is purified by  meditation. A pure mind will not have any attachment to sense objects and  naturally moves towards the Self. The seekers of this type have a very high  degree of detachment from sense objects (Vairagya) and sense of discrimination  to distinguish the Permanent from the Impermanent. (Viveka). This type of individuals  belongs to the highest class.

Sankhya Yoga or Jnaana Yoga: The  second path meant for those who do not have the steadiness of the mind and  intellect is the study of the Shastras. The term `Sankhya' means arriving at  philosophical conclusions through logical thoughts. The study of Shastras and  reflections upon them is called Yoga which will lead one to deeper conviction  of the goal and steadiness of mind to realize it.

Karma Yoga: The third one is for  those who cannot even study and reflect on shastras due to their inner  limitations. Such a person surrenders his actions and their fruits to the Lord.  This produces purity of mind which leads to the knowledge of the Self.

The paths of meditation,  knowledge and work are prescribed to cater to the temperaments of different  classes of people.

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