LAL BAL PAL, the Tridev of India's Independence Movement in early 20 century

In Gwalior. Probably the only that has the 3 together.
  • Briefly read about contribution of Lal, Bal and Pal to India’s Freedom Movement.

Lal (1865-1928) was from Punjab, full name Lala Lajpat Rai. He is also called Sher-e-Punjab.


Soniya wrote in ThePrint, “The freedom fighter, part of the famous radical trio of ‘Lal, Bal, Pal’, is known as ‘Punjab Kesari’ or ‘The Lion of Punjab’. He was a lawyer, a prolific writer and also a leading freedom fighter who faced multiple stints in jail for his campaigns against the British Raj. The three were ardent proponents of robust swadeshi infrastructure to wean Indians off British systems, and while Rai went on to co-found the Punjab National Bank in 1894, Hans Raj and Vidyarthi co-founded the ubiquitous DAV schools. In the early 1920s, Rai also set up the National College in Lahore, whose students would include Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev.”


"There was deep resentment in India in 1928 when the British sent the Simon Commission – which had no Indian as member – to effect constitutional reforms.

On 30 October 1928, Rai led a peaceful march to protest against the commission. However, British police officer James A. Scott ordered a lathi-charge and Rai was among the protesters injured seriously. He succumbed to his injuries on 17 November 1928.” Source and to read more

Also read by Dr Kapoor Lala Lajpat Rai gave a fillip to India's Freedom Movement  

Bal was from Maharashtra, full name Bal Gangadhar Tilak.


The public celebration of the Ganapati festival - Sarvajanik Ganeshotsav - was started by Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1893.


By reviving an old institution like the Ganapati festival and transforming it into a public celebration, Tilak sought to, and succeeded, in challenging the decade plus monopoly of the moderate-liberal leaders who had set the agenda for social and political reforms in the country.


As N.R.Inamdar, a political scientist and historian, writing on the political ideas of Tilak in the book Political Thought in Modern India (Edited by Thomas Pantham and Kenneth L Deutsch, Sage Publications, 1986), explains: "To Tilak, a feeling of oneness among the people and pride in their country's heritage were the vital forces of nationalism. He believed that fostering among the people the feeling that they have common interests to be pursued and realised through united political action could develop nationalism. This idealistic and romantic conception of nationalism did inspire and united the de-spirited and divided people of India. Tilak referred to Akbar and Shivaji as illustrious rulers who forged national unity across regional, religious and caste barriers”.


Read excerpts from book on Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Pal (1858-1932) was from Bengal, full name Bipin Chandra Pal. According to this article in India Today, “Pal is known as the 'Father of Revolutionary Thoughts' in India and was one of the freedom fighters of India. He emphasised on the use of Indian goods and believed that the boycott of foreign goods would help in eradicating poverty and unemployment. He did not believe in mild form of protests like Non-Cooperation with the government. He had a multi-faceted personality that included being a leader, teacher, journalist, orator, writer and librarian.” 


He is called the Father of Revolutionary Thought in India. Hear video (1.02 minutes)


These three dominated Indian politics in the first two decades of the 20th century.


Noted journalist and author the late Girilal Jain wrote in The Hindu Phenomenon, “As Bande Mataram, the extremist paper edited by B C Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh explained: “Swaraj as a sort of European ideal will not awaken India. Swaraj as the fulfilment of the ancient life of India under modern conditions, the return of Satyagraha (the era of truth)  of national greatness, the resumption by her of her great role of teacher and guide, self-liberation of the people for the final fulfilment of the Vedantic ideal in politics, this is the true Swaraj for India.” Pg. 48.


Also read

1. The Triveni Sangam of the Independence Movement in Tamil Nadu

2. VP Menon the man who saved India  

3. Veer Surendra Sai – Freedom Fighter from Orissa

4. Life Story of Sardar Patel

5. How the INA contributed to India’s Independence

6. Karnataka Goddess of Courage – Kittur Rani

7. Who was responsible for Partition

8. Did Ahimsa get India freedom?  

9. History of the Arya Samaj by Lala Lajpat Rai  

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