Hinduism and Prabuddha Bharata, United Colours of Faith on the Canvas of Awakened India

  • This essay covers beginnings of the Prabuddha Bharata, India in the 19th century, what is Hinduism, Dialogue & Amity.

Hinduism, traditionally known as Sanatana dharma  or  ‘eternal faith’, presents a kaleidoscope of  colours  on the canvas of  life - the red of passion, as in bhakti yoga; the orange or golden yellow of  dispassion, as in monastic  orders; the  yellow of  intellect and action, as in karma yoga; the green of  equipoise, as in raja yoga; the blue of  wisdom, as  in jnana yoga; the indigo of  psychic ability, as in kundalini yoga; the white of purity, peace and truth, as in all spiritual disciplines; and shades of  gray, as in philosophical systems that do not see any objective  proof of  the supreme being  or of man’s subjective link to divinity.


Historically, Hinduism has periods of bright reds and beaming pinks, of blues and yellows, as also of blacks and grays, marked respectively by spiritual efflorescence, intellectual growth, and lack of sheen due to accretions of ages, foreign invasions, and religious onslaughts.1 But the pure spirit of Hinduism blossomed like the white lotus in the dark waters of outdated beliefs and practices, and the challenges of change from time to time.     


Prabuddha Bharata or ‘Awakened India’, the monthly journal of the Ramakrishna Order, has not only been unfolding these colours in their various hues, tints and shades, but also keeping high the torch of wisdom of sages, seers, and enlightened souls belonging to different traditions, through its long and meaningful history, spanning 125 years. It has brought about a spiritual renaissance by serving to humanity, the nectar of the life-giving, all-encompassing and practical philosophy of Advaita Vedanta, as taught by the holy trio-Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-1886), Ma Sarada Devi (1853-1920) and Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902), and their worthy disciples. True to its name, it has ‘worked to open up within man a greater awareness of his own worth and power, dignity and divinity’, and remained faithful to ‘the cause of truth, humanity and country.’ 2


It has chartered a dynamic view of life as expressed in an apothegm of Aitreya Brahamana, which is translated thus:

‘One who lies down is Kali,   

One who awakes is Dwapara

One who stands up becomes Treta,

And one who moves on realizes the Satya Yuga.

Therefore move on.’    


The Beginnings

Founded in Madras (Chennai in the present-day Tamil Nadu), under the inspiration of Swami Vivekananda on 1st  July 1896 and shifted to Almora, Himalayas, in August 1898 , after the premature demise of  its brilliant editor, B R Ranjam Iyer (1872-1898), and subsequently to Mayavati in 1899, the journal faced many ups and downs, including its closure for a month. It was resurrected under the editorship of Swami Swarupananda (pre-monastic name Ajoy Hari Bandopadhyaya, (1871-1906), to carry on its noble mission. Its Himalayan home-Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati - was established by

 Swami Vivekananda’s English disciples - Captain James Henry Sevier and Mrs Charlotte Sevier.3


The prospectus of Prabuddha Bharata laid down its objective of popularizing ‘the sacred truths of Hindu religion and the sublime and beautiful ideal of the Vedanta in as simple, homely and interesting a manner as possible’, not for personal gain, but for the spiritual uplift of humanity, caught in the mire of materialism. 


To this effect, the journal was to carry the  Puranic and classical  episodes  delineating  the eternal truths, philosophical tales and short articles on philosophical subjects, and  the lives and teachings of great sages and bhakta-s, irrespective of  their caste, creed or nationality, since they were ‘and ever will be the beacon lights of humanity.’ 4 The prospectus and subsequent publication of the journal were welcomed by the press due to their non-sectarian outlook, noble mission, and futuristic vision.5


In its first editorial, titled ‘Ourselves’, the objectives of  Prabuddha Bharata were made more clear, and a plan to simultaneously realize the Vedantic ideals of  ‘individual perfection’ and  ‘social perfection’, were mooted. The grand success of Swami Vivekananda, at the World Parliament of Religions held at Chicago in 1893, and during his subsequent sojourns in America and Europe, was noted with pride. 


Referring to the new wave of resurgence, it wrote:  ‘A San(n)yasin from our midst carries the altar fire across the seas. The spirit of the Upanishads makes a progress in distant lands. The procession develops into a festival. Its noise reaches Indian shores and behold! Our motherland is awakening.’ The awakening which the editorial spoke of was  not  like that of an eagle ‘which rises from sleep with renewed vigour  and strength to roam and to fight  but that of  a nightingale melting the hearers’ hearts with its soft, sweet melodies.’ 6  


Since awakening ensures at the level ‘on which consciousness dwells’ 7 Prabuddha  Bharata  intended to elevate the consciousness of people from physical to divine level, so that they could they could transform  themselves, and become the catalysts of social change.


In its December 1896 issue, Prabuddha Bharata carried a front-page article, titled, ‘Hinduism and  Religious Evolution’ in which it classified religion into four groups – the religion of fear; the  religion of  love for earthly rewards or heavenly enjoyment;  the religion of   love, without bargaining; and the religion  insisting on wisdom as an end in itself.  


As one grows in spiritual consciousness, one step leads to another. The article described Hinduism as ‘one of the most comprehensive and most highly evolved religions, the religion of that highest of philosophies – the Vedanta.’ Alluding to its assimilative character, it claimed that if Christ had been born in India, he would have found a place in the list of avatars or incarnations, of god on the earth. Mary of Catholicism in the south, has ‘almost become Mariamai.’  Miran of Nagore (Tanjore district) ‘is already the common property’ of both the Hindus and the Muslims.   


‘The fisherman that prays to the ocean God, for the safety of himself and his new boat, with liquor bottle and camphor, has religious kinship with the rishi who prays on the banks of the Sindhu (the Indus) saying, “O God grant light unto me, illumine my mind as the sun, Thy viceroy, illumines the world”- the same mantra that ages ago our ancient fathers uttered on the monarch of mountains…’ 8


Another article in the same issue exhorted Indians to be aware of their spiritual greatness. It argued that while adherents of ‘foreign faiths’ were claiming divine origin for their scriptures, there was not a single passage in them that could not be found in the sacred texts of India. The Vedas say, Vedavai anantah-‘the scriptures are infinite.’ It implies that ‘everything is a scripture which gives a clue to the knowledge of the Supreme Being and of the state to come after this life.’ 9


To begin with, the motto on the masthead of Prabuddha Bharata was derived from the Taittiriya Upanishad (II.i.1) which says: brahmavidapnoti param – ‘He who knows the Supreme attains the highest.’  But when the journal was revived in 1898, it used an inspiring epigram of the Katha Upanishad (I.iii.14): uttishthata  jagrata prapya varan nibodhata – ‘Arise! Awake! And stop not till the goal is reached.’ The reason of changing the motto was to redeem people from sloth so that they could fulfill their dharma of life with self-confidence.


Swami Vivekananda expressed his elation at the revival of Prabuddha Bharata by writing an inspiring poem which appeared on the first page of first issue. It reads inter alia:


‘Once more awake!

For sleep it was, not death to bring thee life.

Anew and rest to lotus-eyes for visions

Daring yet. The world in need awaits, O Truth!

No death for thee!

Resume thy march,

With gentle feet that would not break the

Peaceful rest, even of the roadside dust

That lies so low. Yet strong and steady,

Blissful, bold, and free. Awakener, ever

Forward! Speak thy stirring words.’10

There is more to India than the Taj-West.  

India in 19th century

The 19th century India looked like a mummy of a civilization once rich in all aspects of human activity. Religion had degenerated into dogmas and unnecessary ceremonialism. Dazed by the glare of western culture, people were becoming mimetic and artificial, losing contact with their rich heritage. In the name of modernization (which meant westernization), or under the influence of Christian missionaries, some students of leading colleges  in Kolkata became converts to Christianity, and  made a show of it by moving through  the streets with bottles of brandy and  loaves of beef. In another bizarre incident, when a college student had to accompany his father to the temple of goddess Kali, he did not prostrate himself before the deity, like others, but accosted her by saying, ‘Good morning, madam.’11


In matters of food, the middle class gentry were fast taking to bread, biscuits, pastry, cutlets, and such other stuff, in place of traditional items like ‘gram, Muri, Chira, Cocoanut kernel, Channa etc.’ Tea- drinking, ‘the root cause of many ailments’, and spirituous liquors, included by the authors of smriti-literature, in the category of mahapataka-s or heinous sins, were gaining popularity replacing plain water and sharbat or syrup.  12


The higher values of life, like simplicity, renunciation, benevolence and contentment were fast diminishing. 13 All this threw a challenge to the contemporary society, and brought about a resurgence of the Hindu spirit through religious stalwarts and social reformers.


In the inimitable words of Percival Spear: ‘If Ram Mohan Roy was the mind, Dayananda the physical arm, Ramakrishna was the soul of the new India.’14


Swami Vivekananda, the chief disciple of Sri Ramakrishna , came to be known as a ‘Cyclonic Hindu’ or ‘Prophet of the New Age’ due to his successful mission to the west,  his unbounded love for India and countrymen, his humanitarian concerns and his universal outlook. 


He founded the Ramakrishna Mission on 1st May 1897 with a twin motto: Atmano mokashartham jagaddhitaya cha – ‘For one’s own liberation and for the welfare of the world.’  The Mission marked the convergence of revivalist, non-revivalist, conservative, radical and other streams of social reform prevalent in India. It was the fulfillment of the Indian renaissance that began with Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833).


Quintessential Hinduism 

Through its editorials and articles, Prabuddha Bharata  has provided a true image of Hinduism bereft of  the19th century stereotypes, like, it is ‘pure paganism’ full of  barbarous practices ; it is a syncretistic mix-up of various thought-systems; it negates social values and is devoid of  any positive content; and so on. 


Swami Vivekananda proved through his lectures in the west, as reported in American and English newspapers, and reproduced  thereafter in The Brahmavadin ( presently, The Vedanta Kesari) and Prabuddha Bharata , 15 that Hinduism - the ‘mother of religions’ -  has catholic vision, sublime metaphysics, ennobling ethics, and a monotheistic base.  Its acceptance of the unity of life, harmony with science, recognition of reason’s limitations, stress on spiritual experience, non-dogmatism, and spirit of tolerance, make it a unique faith.  Its key notes are samyama, supreme self-restraint, sadvichara, positive thoughts, and samanvya, harmony. 


Hinduism is so broad and comprehensive that it eludes all definitions.16 One can find in it different forms of belief, ranging from strict monotheism and plain henotheism to a wide variety of polytheism, pantheism, animism and fetishism.  It offers various methods for the realization of truth in accordance with the mental make-up of persons - Jnana yoga for the intellectual; Bhakti yoga for the emotional; Karma yoga for the active; and Raja yoga for the analytic or meditative.  


Prabuddha Bharata rightly observed in an editorial in 1896:‘Hinduism is a realization from beginning to end, it is philosophy applied…’17


Hinduism deals with both vyavaharika and parmarthika – the empirical and the transcendental – dimensions of life. It recommends  the path of  dharma  (righteousness) instead of  adharma (unrighteousness), of nivritti (quiescence), instead of  pravritti (worldly pursuits) ; and of shreyas ( the good ) instead of preyas,  ( the pleasant), to achieve  the higher goals of life, as suggested in the Upanishads.


Arnold J Toynbee’s view in his monumental work, A Study of History,  that Hinduism lacks ‘the absence of feeling’, and is dominated by the intellect, does not hold ground, as shown  by Debiprasad Bhattacharya in an article in Prabuddha Bharata.18

There is more to India than the Taj-East  

Hinduism is not a religion in the Semitic sense of the term with a founder or prophet, one particular god, or one holy book. It cannot have a central organization like other religions because it is not a fixed revelation but a vibrant tradition that has evolved with time. Prabuddha Bharata wrote in this context: ‘Hinduism is one of the finest and most coherent growths in the world. Its disadvantages arise from the fact that it is a growth, not an organization, a tree, not a machine.’ 19 It has no quarrel with any dimension of truth. Science, philosophy, mysticism, art, literature and other disciplines, have flourished under its umbrella, without an impediment.


To confine such a wide-ranging tradition to a set of dogmas, would only destroy its ever-pulsating nature that has helped it to survive for millennia. The journal asserted: ‘With all our hearts, we believe, that there is no other religion in the world that embodies so much of the eternal truth as this of the Vedas.’ But it regretted that Christian missionaries were misrepresenting Hinduism apart from using dishonest means to convert people. ‘Christianity benefits by every famine, and every social emergency that arises in our midst.’ 20       


Prabudha Bharata  made some concrete suggestions to fortify Hinduism, like, supplementing ‘religion by public spirit’, educating not just  one class or community  but everyone, cultivating scientific temper, forming voluntary social institutions to help the poor, the sick, the old, the women, and the forlorn, and  energizing  the Indian culture  by viewing things ‘ín their wholeness’ and from fresh perspectives. It made a plea for making Hinduism aggressive internationally, by sending out missionaries abroad and accepting converts. 21


All this seems to have made a deep impression on the minds of people. Sister Nivedita (Margaret Elizabeth Noble, 1867-1911), noted before her demise that ‘Hinduism is fit to pass through the ordeals of the Modern Transition.’ 22


Hinduism is often blamed for the evils of caste and untouchability. Swami Vivekananda sarcastically remarked that religion had been reduced to ‘Don’t-touchism’ in his time. ‘Our religion is in the kitchen. Our God is the cooking pot.’23   Yet he was not against the institution of caste but the evils that had crept into it. It may be mentioned that caste, a term of foreign origin, denoting inequality among human beings, is not sanctioned by the Vedas or other scriptures. It has been denounced by enlightened Hindus from Adi Shankaracharya and exponents of the Bhakti movement, to social reformers of the 19th century, down to Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948), the makers of the Indian constitution, and the present-day  faith-leaders.


The original varna vyavastha or social class system, was based on a scientific division of work in society. However, in course of time, the system degenerated and caste based on equality gave way to caste based on birth without the requisite traits. 24  


While delineating the role of Hinduism in the ‘one world’ ideal, Brahmachari Turiyachaitanya argued that Hinduism does not belong to a particular class or group of people, but to the entire humanity. ‘It is not a religion but Religion itself.’  It is Manava dharma – ‘a synthesis of the religious strivings of the whole of mankind, comprising men and women with different needs and in varying stages of development.’ 25 How true. 


Hindu fundamentalism is a contradiction in terms since it permits everyone to worship god in whatever way or form one likes, or not believe in him at all. It does not speak of a single path to the divine, practice blasphemy, or believe in eternal damnation. Hindu rulers of medieval India were not ‘guilty of crimes in the name of religion.’ 26


Hinduism presents an integral and holistic view of life which is not antagonistic to nature. It celebrates human relationship with the primeval elements and the cosmic forces in the form of the sun, the moon, stars and planets, through prayers, feasts, fasts and festivals. Environmental protection is integral to Hinduism.


The rishi of Bhumi sukta  pays homage to the mother earth in sixty-three verses, and explains right in the beginning, that it is sustained by truth, eternal order, consecration, penance, knowledge and sacrifice.27 Environmental crisis  is caused by ‘the corruption of  human consciousness.’ The survival of mankind depends on progress ‘in synergetic relationship with the universe’, as envisioned by the Vedic rishis. 28


The Vedantic ideal of  unity in variety was emphasized in the first editorial of  Prabuddha Bharata, which clearly stated thus: ‘Though an organ of Hindu religion, the Prabuddha Bharata will have no quarrel with any other religion: for really speaking, all religions are simply different phases of the same Truth, different methods of approaching God.’ Vedanta, being the common basis of all religions, cannot have a dispute with any of them – ‘the whole has no quarrel with the part.’ 29

There is more to India than the Taj-South. 

Dialogue and Amity

Dialogic theology can bring about amity and understanding among religions. A meaningful dialogue can deepen one’s awareness of the Reality perceived by others. The era characterized by the Latin phrase ‘extra ecclesiam nulla salus’, meaning,‘there is no salvation outside the church’, has come to an end. 


Swami Vivekananda and other eloquent speakers like  Virchand Gandhi ( 1864-1901) and  H. Dharmapala ( 1864-1933)  proved during the sessions of  the  Parliament of Religions, 1893,  that non-Christian religions  were not comprised of debased ideas, as generally believed, but contained  eternal truths.30  Ela Wheeler Wilcox (1850-1919), a contemporary American poet and journalist (who later contributed articles to Prabuddha Bharata), conceded that a liberal era had dawned  as orthodoxy had allowed people of different faiths to interact  ‘without attempting to sever off their heads or burn them alive.’31


The post-World War II period was marked by a growing disapproval of the New Reformation Theology of Karl Barth and the Christian Realism of H. Richard Niebuhr. The new hermeneutic engaged scholars in interpreting the Gospel according to the existential conditions.  Alongside the revival of older traditions (inspired by A.N.Whitehead’s works) and the growth of critical orthodoxy (exemplified in the works of A.C.Outler and Gordon Kaufmann) developed new trends, trying to readjust the Gospel Truths with the changing social realities. 


Gradually, the course of religious dialogue changed from exclusivism to inclusivism to pluralism. ‘But pluralism itself now appears rather contradictory and irrelevant when viewed with in the one religious history of humanity, and the one divine economy of salvation for all the human beings.’ argues Fr John B. Chethimattam. 32  


The solution lies in accepting the Vedantic view of the oneness of existence and the quintessential unity of all faiths. When the One alone shines in everything, multiple forms denote only differences in name and form.


Vedanta accepts all spiritual endeavors as valid ways to reach the Supreme Being. The unitary vision of the divine is explained by Sri Krishna thus: mayi sarvamidam protam sutre manigana iva – ‘All the universe is strung in me like rows of pearls in a thread.’ 33


The attitude of Prabuddha Bharata towards different religions has been marked by respect and understanding, not mistrust or hostility, in line with the Vedic saying ((Rigveda 1.164.46) – ekam sat vipra bahudha vadanti – ‘Truth is one but sages call it differently’. 


This is evident from the fact that it has carried editorials, articles, comments and book-reviews on different religious traditions, without prejudice.34 Recognizing religion as a spiritual, moral and social force, it has promoted inter-religious understanding and eschewed controversies to the extent possible. It has awakened people ‘to the most important value of existence – sanity, nay spiritual consciousness.’  35 


Although Prabuddha Bharata has shown a broad catholic outlook, it has simultaneously tried to restore the lost dynamics of Hinduism by sensitizing people to the religious and cultural heritage of India. It has followed the ideal of the Taittiriya Upanishad (I.XI.1) which says interalia: satyam vad, dharmam chara…. swadhyayapravachanabhyam na pramaditavyam–Speak the truth; practice righteousness…Do not be careless about learning and teaching.’ 


The success of Prabuddha Bharata has been as much due to the spiritual ardour and erudition of its successive editors and the support of its patrons and contributors, as it has been due to the invisible spirit of Swami Vivekananda that seems to be guiding its destiny.


By emphasizing the culture of soul-consciousness, holding onto the highest truth, responding gracefully to negative attitudes in theological matters, promoting social cohesion, reflecting on the vital problems of  life (like crisis of character or ecological imbalance), and adhering to the Vedantic ideals of  renunciation and service, Prabuddha Bharata  has ushered the divine spirit in mundane affairs, and given wings to the human mind, so that it remains engaged in the twin tasks of  self-development and the welfare of humanity, as envisioned by its founder. The process continues.


Author, A former British Council Scholar, Dr Satish K Kapoor is a noted author, educationist, historian, Radio and TV script-writer, and spiritual columnist. He was formerly Principal, Lyallpur Khalsa College, Jalandhar City, Local Secretary, DAV institutions, Solapur (Maharashtra) and Registrar, DAV University, Jalandhar. His latest book, Hinduism: The Faith Eternal has been published by Advaita Ashrama, Kolkata.


To read all articles by author


This article was first published in the January 2021issue of Prabuddha Bharata, monthly journal of The Ramakrishna Order started by Swami Vivekananda in 1896. This article is courtesy and copyright Prabuddha Bharata. I have been reading the Prabuddha Bharata for years and found it enlightening. Cost is Rs 180/ for one year, Rs 475/ for three years, Rs 2100/ for twenty years. To subscribe https://shop.advaitaashrama.org/subscribe/



1. For a historical survey of Hinduism, see Dr Satish K Kapoor, ‘Hinduism During the Previous Millennium’, Prabuddha Bharata (herafter PB), January 2000, pp. 53-68.

2.  Editorial. ‘Awakener Ever Forward’, PB, July 1970, pp. 250-251.

3. For details, see PB, Centenary of Prabuddha Bharata, 1896-1995, January 1995; PB, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati Centenary number, January 1999.

4. The Indian Mirror, June 14, 1899, vide Vivekananda in Indian Newspapers, 1893-1902. Edited with introduction by Sankari Prasad Basu and Sunil Bihari Ghosh (Calcutta: Bookland Private Limited; Modern Book Agency Private Limited, 1969), pp. 98-100.

5. Prof Sankari Prasad Basu, ‘Swami Vivekananda – The Journalist’,  PB, July 1970, p. 275. 

6. The First Editorial (Prabuddha Bharata 75 years ago). PB, July 1970, pp.292-294.

7. Amaury D. Riencourt, The Soul of India (Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 1986), p.218.

8. PB, December 1896, pp. 61-64.

9. P.V.Ramaswami Raju, ‘The Greatness of Spiritual India’, PB, December 1896, p. 64.

10. The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (hereafter CW), Vol. IV (Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama, 1966), pp.387-89. See also Swami Tejasananda, ‘The Message of Awakened India’, PB, July 1970, pp. 324-329.

11. R.C. Majumdar (General editor),  History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. X. : British Paramountcy and Indian Renaissance, Vol. II, (Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan, 1965), pp. 90-91.

12. Pramatha Nath Bose, ‘Hindu Society, Past and Present-I’, PB, January 1933, pp. 36-37.

13 Ibid., Part –II, February 1933, pp. 79-83.

14. Percival Spear, The Oxford History of Modern India, 1740-1947 (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1965), p. 287.

15.  Sankari Prasad Basu and Sunil Bihari Ghosh, pp. 469- 644; Dr Satish K Kapoor, Cultural Contact and Fusion: Swami Vivekananda in the West (1893-1896) (Jalandhar: ABS Publishers, 1987), pp.339-344.

16. For details on this aspect, see Dr Satish K Kapoor, Hinduism: The Faith Eternal (Kolkata: Advaita Ashrama, 2015), pp. 1-14, 23-28, 60-7.

17. PB, December 1896, p. 64.

18. Debiprasad Bhattacharya, ‘Hinduism and Arnold Toynbee- II’, PB, July 1979, pp.297-305.

19. ‘Hinduism and Its Need of Organisation’, PB, December 1910, p. 223.

20. Ibid., p. 223.

21. Ibid., pp. 223-25.

22. ‘Hinduism and the Modern Transition’ (By the late Sister Nivedita), PB, 1912, p. 229.

23. CW, Vol. III, 1970, p. 167.

24. For more details on this aspect see Hinduism: The Faith Eternal, pp.60-7.

25. Brahmachari Turiyachaitanya, ‘The Role of Hinduism in the “One World” Ideal.’ PB, November 1950, p. 441.

26.   Sri S. N. Qanungo, ‘Hindu States and Their Muslim Subjects in Medieval India’, PB, November 1963, pp. 544-548.

27 Atharvaveda XII.1.1.

28.  Dr Satish K Kapoor, ‘Ecological Concerns in Hinduism’, PB, January 1998, p. 58.

29. ‘The First Editorial’ in PB, July 1970, p.293.

30.  See Walter  R. Houghton (ed.), Neely’s History of the Parliament of Religious Congresses at the World’s Columbian Exposition (Chicago and New York: F. Tennyson Neely, 1894), pp. 60-62,64-65, 406- 409, 438-449, 607-13, 701-02, 732-36, 852-54. 

31. Houghton, p. 991.

32. Fr John B. Chethimattam, ‘Hundred Years of Hindu Christian Dialogue’, PB, January 1995, p. 396.

33. The Bhagavadgita, VII.7.

34.  A few representative articles on different religions are listed here :  Dr Roma Chaudhuri, ‘Great Sufi Bayazid Al-Bistami’, PB, August 1948, pp.370-372; Sri N. Aiarswami Sastri, ‘The Message of the Buddha’, PB, May 1950, pp. 203-210; P. S. Naidu. ‘A Hindu View of Christ’ (Review article), August 1950, pp. 336-337; Dr Hafiz Syed, ‘Hazarat Nizamuddin Aulia’, May 1960, PB, 228-232; Dr M. Hafiz Syed, ‘Khawaja Muinuddin Chishti’, PB, October 1960, pp.431-433; Father Robert Campbell, ‘Crisis in Christianity’ (The Text of a Speech), PB, March 1969, PP.122-126; Swami Rasajnananda, ‘Guru Nanak: Prophet of Unity’, PB, April 1969, pp.176-183; Prof. D.C. Gupta, ‘Shintoism and Buddhism’, PB, April 1972, pp. 174-176; Swami Buddhananda, ‘Our Christ’ (Editorial), December 1973, pp.491-500; Shashikant K. Mehta, ‘Essentials of Jainism’, PB, December 1995, pp. 914-917; Bikkhu Bodhi, ‘The Buddha’s Message in a Globalized World’, PB, January 2000, pp.70-74; Dr Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, ‘Sufism During the Past Millennium : A Survey’, PB, January 2000, pp. 90-95; Fr John B. Chethimattam, ‘From Roman Church to Universal Christianity’, PB, January 2000, pp. 75-82; Prof  Hossainur Rahman, ‘Islamic Millennium – A Personal View’, PB, January 2000, pp. 83-89. 

35.  Editorial, PB, July 1970, p. 252.


Receive Site Updates